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Table 2 Standard assessment tools for evaluation of adherence in the HD population

From: Adherence to prescribed oral medication in adult patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis: A critical review of the literature

Direct monitoring methods Indirect monitoring methods
assays of drug concentrations in biological fluids patient self-reports (structured interviews, questionnaire)
use of markers incorporated into pills compliance ratings by nurses
direct observation of pill taking prescription refills
pill counts
microelectronic monitoring devices (MEMS)