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Table 3 Factors associated with nonadherence in HD patients

From: Adherence to prescribed oral medication in adult patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis: A critical review of the literature

Demographic factors age
sex/gender
educational level
marital status/living arrangements
race/ethnicity
income/employment status
cost/payment/insurance/socioeconomic situation
smoking/drinking/drug abuse
religion/religiosity
Clinical factors length of time on hemodialysis
chronicity/chronic conditions
diabetic status
former transplant history
treatment regimen complexity/high tablet burden
tablet size and taste
treatment side effects
Psychosocial factors health beliefs/knowledge/motivation
self-esteem
cognitive behaviour/function
health locus of control1
social support and family dynamics
psychiatric illness anxiety/depression
coping style
patient-physician relationship
  1. 1defined as a high expectation that one's actions have a causal relationship with the produced consequences.
  2. These factors are mainly based on expert opinion.