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Table 1 Descriptive data of the study population (n = 2049)

From: Impact of maternal body mass index on neonatal outcome

  healthy weight
(n = 1446)
underweight
(n = 163)
overweight
(n = 309)
obese
(n = 126)
age (years) 30.2 ± 5.4 27.9 ± 6.1** 30.7 ± 5.9 29.5 ± 5.9
parity 1.5 ± 0.8 1.5 ± 0.9 1.6 ± 0.9* 2.0 ± 1.2**
primipara (%) 64.8 67.9 58.3* 43.9**
weight gain during 15.9 ± 5.4 15.7 ± 5.1 15.5 ± 6.5 12.8 ± 6.9**
pregnancy (kg)     
maternal BMI 21.4 ± 1.7 17.6 ± 0.7** 26.9 ± 1.3** 33.9 ± 3.3**
smoking during
pregnancy (%)
16.3 25.2* 16.5 14.3
preterm delivery (%) 7.6 16.8** 12.2* 8.9
gestational age (weeks) 39.0 ± 2.1 38.6 ± 2.6(*) 38.8 ± 2.5 39.0 ± 1.9
section (%) 25.2 24.2 35.9** 32.5
RR sys. In 1st half of
pregnancy (mmHg)
114.3 ± 11.1 109.7 ± 10.4** 119.4 ± 11.8** 125.9 ± 11.7**
RR sys. In 2nd half of
pregnancy (mmHg)
115.3 ± 10.0 111.4 ± 9.6** 120.8 ± 11.9** 125.9 ± 10.6**
RR dia. In 1st half of
pregnancy (mmHg)
67.7 ± 7.5 65.2 ± 6.6** 71.8 ± 7.9** 75.1 ± 7.4**
RR dia. In 2nd half of
pregnancy (mmHg)
69.1 ± 6.9 66.8 ± 6.8** 72.9 ± 7.8** 75.4 ± 6.9**
hypertensive
complications (%)
5.7 2.5 13.2** 16.7**
proteinuria 2nd half of
pregnancy (%)
37.4 31.6 41.6 45.0
periph. edema 2nd half
of pregnancy (%)
34.6 19.1** 55.9** 59.3**
child sex (male %) 52.5 52.8 58.9* 52.4
birth weight (g) 3347.1 ± 607.8 3209.9 ± 666.7* 3452.5 ± 644.2* 3587.4 ± 617.5**
child length (cm) 50.8 ± 3.0 50.0 ± 3.7* 51.2 ± 2.9* 51.3 ± 2.9
child head
circumference (cm)
34.7 ± 2.0 34.3 ± 2.9* 34.9 ± 2.4* 35.2 ± 1.7*
ponderalindex 25.4 ± 3.2 25.6 ± 2.9 25.7 ± 2.5 26.7 ± 4.9**
LGA (%) 10.8 7.8 17.2* 27.6**
SGA (%) 11.6 14.9 6.4* 8.9
APGAR 5 min 9.4 ± 0.9 9.3 ± 0.9 9.3 ± 1.0 9.3 ± 0.9
APGAR 10 min 9.7 ± 0.6 9.7 ± 0.6 9.6 ± 0.6 9.6 ± 0.7
umbilical vein
blood pH
7.28 ± 0.08 7.26 ± 0.08* 7.28 ± 0.07 7.27 ± 0.07
admission to
neonatal-ICU (%)
22.9 20.2 30.4* 37.3**
  1. */**: p < 0.05/0.001 vs. healthy weight group. (*): p = 0.05 vs healthy weight group. LGA/SGA: Large/small for gestational age. Data are given as mean ± SD, metric data are analyzed using T-Test, categorical data were analyzed using chi2-test