The effects of cell signaling inhibitors on PgLPS-and PgLPS+AZM-induced IL-8 production. HGFs were pretreated with inhibitors, and treated with the combination of PgLPS (0 and 10 ng/ml), AZM (0 and 10 μg/ml) and each inhibitor. IL-8 levels were measured by ELISA. The concentrations were adjusted by the cell numbers and expressed as per 10,000 cells. (A) PD98059 (20 μM), SP600125 (20 μM) and SB202190 (20 μM); (B) H-89 (10 μM), wortmannin (20 nM) and U-73122 (2 μM); (C) PDTC (100 μM).