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Table 1 Problems in aerosol therapy and their solution (modified according to [4, 6, 13, 24]).

From: Novel devices for individualized controlled inhalation can optimize aerosol therapy in efficacy, patient care and power of clinical trials

Source of the problem Type of the problem Solution of the problem
Device Low aerosol output Vibrating mesh nebulizers
  Aerosol distribution width Dry powder inhalers (DPI)
  Variability of aerosol particle spectrum Metered dose inhalers (MDI)
  Long treatment times for drug solutions Vibrating mesh nebulizers
Compound Formulation: Optimisation of manufacturing:
     Chemical/physical stability    Refinement of production processes
     Aerodynamic diameter    Addition of stabilising excipients
     Adhesion force  
     Electrical charge  
  Biology: Improvement of galenics:
     Permeability    Addition of absorption enhancers and
     Metabolism    proteinase inhibitors and packing into
     Safety    particles
     Immunogenicity