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Table 3 Quantitative parameters assessed during pregnancy and after childbirth.

From: Incontinence, bladder neck mobility, and sphincter ruptures in primiparous women

  During pregnancy
(n = 99)
Spontaneous delivery
(n = 61)
Vacuum extraction
(n = 19)
Cesarean section
(n = 19)
  Mean value
(s.d.)
Mean value
(s.d.)
p-value* Mean value
(s.d.)
p-value* Mean value
(s.d.)
p-value*
LAM contraction 2.96 (1.05) 2.75 (1.20) 0.45 2.82 (1.19) 0.60 2.97 (1.09) 0.96
(Oxford score 0-5)        
Length of introitus (cm) 2.85 (0.58) 2.93 (0.61) 0.407 2.88 (0.69) 0.83 2.75 (0.77) 0.10
Length of perineum (cm) 3.77 (0.80) 2.96 (0.59) 0.0018 2.78 (0.53) 0.001 3.06 (0.47) 0.0029
Thickness of M. *sphincter ani ext. (cm) 0.83 (0.17) 0.79 (0.15) 0.248 0.78 (0.16) 0.23 0.83 (0.19) 1.00
Thickness of M. sphincter ani int. (cm) 0.20 (0.06) 0.21 (0.08) 0.611 0.21 (0.07) 0.51 0.19 (0.06) 0.50
  1. LAM - Levator ani muscle, * t-test comparison against values during pregnancy; bold numbers: significant difference with p < .05