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Table 3 Risk factors and their association with common and severe respiratory outcomes in all subjects (n = 126).

From: Respiratory symptoms in preterm infants: burden of disease in the first year of life

    Risk factors Common outcomes Severe outcomes
  n = 101 n = 37
  OR CI p-value OR CI p-value
   BPDa 0.57 (0.22-1.49) 0.249 1.20 (0.54-2.66) 0.659
Known risk factors for BPD       
   Gestational age, per week 1.04 (0.89-1.22) 0.605 0.94 (0.82-1.08) 0.375
   Male sex 1.25 (0.52-3.00) 0.625 1.02 (0.47-2.22) 0.953
   Birthweight, per kg 1.36 (0.56-3.29) 0.493 0.70 (0.32-1.51) 0.362
   Chorioamnionitisb 1.58 (0.56-4.44) 0.387 1.55 (0.68-3.52) 0.295
   PDAc 1.65 (0.51-5.32) 0.402 0.56 (0.21-1.52) 0.253
   PIPd 1.10 (0.92-1.33) 0.292 1.24 (1.05-1.47) 0.012
Factors of perinatal adaption       
   Cord blood pHe 1.98 (0.41-9.48) 0.393 4.37 (1.4-13.61) 0.011
   APGAR score at 10 min.f 1.05 (0.74-1.49) 0.783 1.55 (1.14-2.12) 0.006
   CRIB-score 0.93 (0.82-1.05) 0.232 1.14 (1.01-1.28) 0.024
Environmental risk factors       
   Contact to other childreng 4.71 (1.77-12.56) 0.002 1.30 (0.59-2.90) 0.516
   Maternal atopy 1.52 (0.41-5.66) 0.532 0.82 (0.27-2.46) 0.727
   smoking in pregnancy 1.41 (0.29-6.79) 0.672 1.58 (0.48-5.20) 0.450
  1. In the table are shown: Odds ratio (OR), calculated by univariable logistic regression, defining the increased odds of having the respective outcome with the respective risk factor present; 95% Confidence interval (CI) and p-value.
  2. a BPD was defined as in the consensus guidelines (2)
  3. b Chorioamnionitis was verified by histological findings of the placenta
  4. c PDA = haemodynamic relevant patent ductus arteriosus
  5. d PIP = maximum peak inspiratory pressure
  6. e Cord blood pH = arterial chord blood pH: 1 defined as < 7.15 and 0 defined as > 7.15
  7. f comparable results were obtained for APGAR-scores at 1 and 5 minutes
  8. g Contact to other children = having siblings or going to a nursery care institution regularly