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Table 1 1a. Risk factors associated with the involvement of complicated bacterial pathogens in HAP/VAP

From: Guideline-adherent initial intravenous antibiotic therapy for hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated pneumonia is clinically superior, saves lives and is cheaper than non guideline adherent therapy

Risk factor


Age > 65 yrs


Structural lung disease (e.g. COPD)


Previous antibiotic treatment


Late onset (5 or more days after admission)


Invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation on onset date


Extrapulmonary organ failure


1b. PEG therapeutic recommendations for HAP/VAP depending on the complicated pathogen risk score (CPRS)

Group I (CPRS = 1 or 2)

Aminopenicillin/BLI or cephalosporin 2/3a or quinolone 3/4 or carbapenem 2

Group II (CPRS = 3 to 5)

Acylaminopenicillin/BLI or cephalosporin 3b/4 or quinolone 2/3 or carbapenem 1

Group III (CPRS = 6 and more)

Cephalosporin 3b/4 or acylaminopenicilline/BLI or carbapenem 1


Always in combination with either Quinolone 2/3 or aminoglycoside*

  1. The total complicated pathogen risk score (CPRS) is calculated by adding up all individual scores for risk factors identified in a given patient.
  2. * If the rate of MRSA among the Staphylococcus aureus infections in a given hospital is > 30%, the PEG recommends the inclusion of linezolid or vancomycin in the IIAT. According to Pletz et al., the ZEPHyR study showed that linezolid is superior to vancomycin in proven MRSA-pneumonia [32].