Effect of THR and TKR surgery on oedema. Measurement of fluid retention (knee swelling) was performed by measuring girth size 10 cm from the tibial tuberosity (the bony prominence on the upper shinbone (tibia)). The points represent mean ± SD, P = 0.003 as determined by ANOVA. Baseline vs days 1 (*P = 0.002), 3 (*P = 0.004) and 5 (*P = 0.045) postoperative, n = 5 (five TKR patients). ANOVA, analysis of variance; SD, standard deviation; THR, total hip replacement; TKR, total knee replacement.