Effects of various plasma expanders on the plasma viscosity. (A) Plasma viscosity at various mixing ratios in vitro (n = 5). (B) Plasma viscosity in vivo. Data are plotted as the means ± SD. &
P < 0.05 versus the sham or control group; *P < 0.05 versus the LR group; #
P < 0.05 versus the GEL group.