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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of included studies

From: Thoracic epidural anesthesia improves outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

First author Year Patients ( n ) Age (mean ± std) Sex(M/F) Surgery TEA medication
   TEA ± GA GA TEA ± GA GA TEA ± GA GA   
Bach 2002 13 13 60 ± 8 64 ± 7 11/2 17/10 ECABG Bupivacaine
Bakhtiary 2007 66 66 66 ± 8 64 ± 9 54/12 58/8 OCBG Ropivacaine and sufentanil
Barrington 2005 60 60 63 ± 9 62 ± 10 53/7 51/9 CABG Ropivacaine/fentanyl
Berendes 2003 36 37 61 ± 11 59 ± 12 11/26 9/27 ECABG Bupivacaine and sufentanil
Caputo 2009 36 38 63.8 ± 9.8 66.5 ± 9.3 32/4 34/4 OCBG Propofol and fentanyl
Caputo 2011 109 117 65.9 ± 8.8 65.5 ± 8.6 102/7 102/15 OCBG Bupivacaine
de Vries 2002 30 60 57 ± 11 60 ± 11 20/10 47/13 OPCABG Bupivacaine and sufentanil
Fillinger 2002 30 30 - - - - CABG Bupivacaine/ morphine
Hansdottir 2006 55 55 65 ± 10 68 ± 11 38/20 38/17 ECS Bupivacaine
Heijmans 2007 15 45 61 ± 10 - - - ECS Bupivacaine and remifentanil
Kendall 2004 10 20 66 ± 4.6 - 8/2 14/6 ECS Isoflurane and bupivacaine
Lagunilla 2006 25 25 66.08 ± 8.28 64.04 ± 10.15 22/3 22/3 ECS Ropivacaine/fentanyl
Lundstrom 2005 26 24 66 ± 15 63 ± 11 - - ECS Bupivacaine
Nygard 2004 79 84 - - - - CABG Bupivacaine
Onan 2011 15 15 58.5 ± 6.0 59.4 ± 9.3 14/1 13/2 CABG Bupivacaine
Priestley 2002 50 50 58 ± 10 60 ± 8 8/42 6/44 CABG Ropivacaine/fentanyl
Scott 2001 206 202 59.2 ± 8.94 58.8 ± 9.18 - - CABG Bupivacaine
Svircevic 2011 325 329 65 ± 10 64 ± 10 266/59 277/52 CABG  
Kiliçkan 2006 40 40 61.1 ± 8.9 58.6 ± 13.1 16/4 17/3 CABG Bupivacaine/fentanyl
Royse 2003 37 39 64.2 ± 9.3 65.1 ± 10.8 30/7 30/9 CABG Ropivacaine/fentanyl
Sharma 2010 30 30 58.2 ± 8.0 58.0 ± 8.3 27/3 29/1 OPCABG Bupivacaine/fentanyl
Gurses 2013 32 32 62.8 ± 10.5 61.7 ± 8.8 8/24 10/22 CABG Fentanyl/ levobupivacaine
Rajakaruna 2013 109 117 65.9 ± 8.8 65.5 ± 8.6 102/7 102/15 OPCABG Bupivacaine
Jakobsen 2012 30 30 70.9 ± 4.6 71.6 ± 4.5 21/9 18/12 ECS Bupivacaine
Onan 2013 20 20 59.2 ± 9.6 58.1 ± 6.7 19/1 17/3 CABG Bupivacaine
  1. Abbreviation: TEA thoracic epidural anesthesia, GA general anesthesia, ECABG elective arterial coronary bypass grafting, OCBG off-pump coronary bypass grafting, CABG arterial coronary bypass grafting, OPCABG off-pump CABG surgery, ECS elective cardiac surgery.