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Table 2 Summarized results of direct comparisons according to type of interventions

From: Efficacy and safety of glucosamine, diacerein, and NSAIDs in osteoarthritis knee: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Clinical outcomes No. studies I 2 No. subjects UMD (95% CI)
VAS
  Glu vs. Pla 3 83.4 89 vs. 89 −1.44 (−3.01, 0.12)
  Glu vs. NSAIDs 2 0 106 vs. 110 −0.90 (−1.67, −0.14)*
  Dia vs. Pla 2 0 103 vs. 98 −2.23 (−2.82, −1.64)*
  Dia vs. NSAIDs 2 0 181 vs. 182 0.15 (−0.29, 0.59)
Total WOMAC score change
  Glu vs. Pla 6 0 437 vs. 423 −2.49 (−4.14, −0.83)*
 Actual score
  Glu vs. Pla 2 79.8 73 vs. 76 5.67 (−11.26, 22.61)
Pain WOMAC score change     
  Glu vs. Pla 10 66.3 1,069 vs. 1,056 −0.75 (−1.18, −0.32)*
  Glu vs. NSAIDs 2 85.5 425 vs. 423 −0.07 (−1.5, 1.36)
 Actual score
  Glu vs. Pla 4 81 408 vs. 418 0.06 (−1.33, 1.45)
Functional WOMAC score change
  Glu vs. Pla 10 67.6 1,069 vs. 1,056 −0.58 (−1.98, 0.81)
  Glu vs. NSAIDs 2 77.1 425 vs. 423 −0.84 (−2.95, 4.63)
 Actual score
  Glu vs. Pla 4 90.5 408 vs. 418 −4.78 (−5.96, −3.59)*
  Dia vs. Pla 2 0 110 vs. 110 −7.72 (−18.83, 3.39)
  Dia vs. NSAIDs 2 92.9 189 vs. 185 −6.64 (−10.50, −2.78)*
Stiffness WOMAC score change
  Glu vs. Pla 7 68.1 759 vs. 743 −0.02 (−0.06, 0.03)
 Actual score
  Glu vs. Pla 3 31.5 390 vs. 389 0.09 (−0.38, 0.56)
  Dia vs. Pla 2 1 110 vs. 110 −0.68 ( −1.20, −0.16)*
Lequesne score scores change
  Glu vs. Pla 2 87.7 207 vs. 205 −1.03 (−1.34, −0.72) *
  Dia vs. Pla 2 0 340 vs. 337 0.002 (−0.704, 0.708)
Joint space width
  Glu vs. Pla 4 86.4 357 vs. 350 0.008 (−0.232, 0.248)
All adverse events RR (95% CI)
  Glu vs. Pla 16 7.3 1,366 vs. 1,365 1.12 (1.02, 1.23)*
  Glu vs. NSAIDs 5 81.9 631 vs. 632 0.53 (0.24, 1.20)
  Dia vs. Pla 4 76.6 275 vs. 278 5.58 ( 2.14, 14.59)*
  Dia vs. NSAIDs 2 97.6 181 vs. 182 1.59 ( 0.47, 5.44)
GI adverse event
  Glu vs. Pla 14 0 1,217 vs. 1,211 0.99 ( 0.82, 1.19)
  Glu vs. NSAIDs 5 74.3 631 vs. 632 0.51 ( 0.22, 1.20)
  Dia vs. Pla 6 94.9 937 vs. 701 2.00 ( 0.69, 5.74)
  Dia vs. NSAIDs 3 86.6 373 vs. 267 1.37 ( 0.89, 2.10)
  1. *Statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). CI = confidence interval, NSAIDs = non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, RR = relative risk, UMD = unstandardized mean difference, VAS = visual analog score, WOMAC = Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index.