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Table 2 Randomised, controlled trials of vitamin D for prevention of respiratory tract infections

From: Vitamin D and airway infections: a European perspective

Author (ref.) Publication year N (total) Age (years) 25OHD (nmol/l) 25OHD (nmol/l) Mean vitamin D dose (IU) Duration Endpoint
Initial In-study
Vit D Placebo Vit D Placebo
Aloia [54] 2007 208 60.6 46.9 43 86.9 43 800/2000 daily 3 years Influenza
Li-Ng [55] 2009 148 58.7 58.7 63 88.5 60.9 2000 daily 3 months URTI
Laaksi [52] 2010 164 Young men 78.7 74.4 72 51 400 daily 6 months Acute RTI
Manaseki-Holland [56] 2010 453 1.2 ND ND ND ND 100,000 (single dose) 3 weeks Pneumonia
Urashima [57] 2010 334 10.2 ND ND ND ND 1200 daily 4 months Influenza A
Majak [58] 2011 48 11.5 64.3 88 94 80 500 daily 6 months Acute RTI
Bergman [59] 2012 124 53.1 51.5 46.9 117.4 44 4000 daily 12 months RTI
Camargo [60] 2012 244 19.9 17.5 17 47.3 18 300 daily 7 weeks Acute RTI
Jorde [61] 2012 569 63 ND ND ND ND 3344c 12 months Influenza-like
Manaseki-Holland [62] 2012 3046 0.8 ND ND a b 100,000 quarterly 18 months Pneumonia
Murdoch [63] 2012 322 47.5 75.5 70 122.5 55 100,000 monthlyd 18 months URTI
Rees [64] 2013 759 58.1 62 63.1 ND ND 1000 daily 3–5 years URTI
Urashima [65] 2014 247 Students ND ND ND ND 2000 daily 2 months Influenza A
Goodall [66] 2014 471 19 ND ND ND ND 10,000 weekly 2 months URTI
Simpson [67] 2015 34 Healthy adults 60.5 76.4 107 46 20,000 weekly 17 weeks RTI
Martineau [68] 2015 250 47.9 49.8 49.4 69.4 46.5 120,000 bimonthly 1 year Acute RTI
  1. 25OHD 25-hydroxyvitamin D; IU international units; ND not determined; URTI upper respiratory tract infection; RTI respiratory tract infection
  2. asignificantly higher than placebo
  3. bsignificantly lower than vitamin D group
  4. cseveral studies were included. The vitamin D doses in the individual studies were as follows: 2000, 2800 and 6800 IU/daily, 20,000 and 40,000 IU/weekly and 100,000/monthly, every 2 months or every 3 months
  5. d initial dose: 200,000 IU