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Table 3 Vitamin D effects on innate and adaptive immunity

From: Vitamin D and airway infections: a European perspective

Innate immunity • Cell types:
 Monocytes/macrophages, keratinocytes, gastrointestinal/bronchial epithelial cells, decidual cells, trophoblastic cells, natural killer cells
• Vitamin D effects:
 Antimicrobial peptides (cathelicidin, defensins)↑
 Autophagy↑
 Reactive oxygen species↑, Nitric oxide↑
 Cytokines (e.g. interleukins 6, 8, 12, tumour necrosis factor-α)↑
 Chemokines (e.g. CCL3, CCL4, CCL8, CCL20)↑
Adaptive immunity • Cell types:
 T cells, dendritic cells
• Vitamin D effects:
 T-regulatory cells↑, T helper cells type 17↓
 T helper cells type 1↓, T helper cells type 2↑
 Pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. interleukin 6, tumour necrosis factor-α)↓
 Anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. interleukins 4 and 10)↑
Immunoglobulin E↑
  1. ↑ denotes increase
  2. ↓ denotes decrease