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Table 1 Frequencies of complications following modified Hughes procedures stratified by the type of anterior lamella reconstruction

From: Modified Hughes procedure for reconstruction of large full-thickness lower eyelid defects following tumor resection

Type of complications All cases (n = 45) Free skin grafts (n = 22) Advancement flaps (n = 23)
Early complications (before flap division) 1 (2 %)      1 (4 %)   
 Flap suture dehiscence    1 (2 %)      1 (4 %)
 Flap pedicle rupture       
 Flap necrosis       
Late complications (after flap division) 6 (13 %)    5 (23 %)    1 (4 %)   
 Donor-site complications (upper eyelid)   1 (2 %)    1 (5 %)    
  Lid retraction       
  Entropion/trichiasis    1 (2 %)    1 (5 %)   
 Lower lid complications   5 (11 %)    4 (18 %)    1 (4 %)  
  Ectropion    2 (4 %)    2 (9 %)   
  Trichiasis       
  Lid margin hypertrophy    1 (2 %)    1 (5 %)   
  Pyogenic granuloma    2 (4 %)    1 (5 %)    1 (4 %)
Tumor recurrence (lower eyelid) 2 (4 %)    1 (5 %)    1 (4 %)