Skip to main content

Table 1 Patient characteristics and inter-group differences

From: Unplanned readmissions in younger and older adult patients: the role of healthcare-related adverse events

Study population All patients Younger patients (<65 years) Older patients (≥65 years)
N (%) or median (range) Total study population Readmission group No readmission group p value* Readmission group No readmission group p value* Readmission group No readmission group p value*
N = 940 N = 163 N = 777 N = 82 N = 403 N = 81 N = 374
Age, in years 64 (16–101) 65 (17–95) 64 (16–101) 0.39 56 (1765) 50 (1665) 0.001 76 (65–95) 77 (65–101) 0.21
Sex, female 493 (52.4) 77 (47.2) 416 (53.5) 0.14 39 (47.6) 214 (53.1) 0.36 38 (46.9) 202 (54.0) 0.25
CCI 2 (011) 2 (09) 2 (011) 0.04 2 (08) 1 (011) 0.005 2 (0–9) 2 (0–9) 0.96
Number of medications useda 5.0 (0–25) 5.0 (0–21) 5.0 (0–25) 0.70 4.0 (0–21) 3.0 (0–25) 0.11 5.0 (016) 7.0 (020) 0.006
ADL dependency, yes 44 (4.7) 12 (7.4) 32 (4.1) 0.08 2 (2.4) 9 (2.2) 1.0 10 (12.3) 23 (6.1) 0.05
IADL dependency, yes 55 (5.9) 11 (6.7) 44 (5.7) 0.59 2 (2.4) 11 (2.7) 1.0 9 (11.1) 33 (8.8) 0.52
Cognitive impairmenta, yes 79 (8.4) 9 (5.5) 70 (9.0) 0.16 2 (2.4) 9 (2.2) 1.0 7 (8.6) 61 (16.3) 0.09
Living situation, nursing facility 65 (6.9) 9 (5.5) 56 (7.2) 0.50 1 (1.2) 7 (1.7) 1.0 8 (9.9) 49 (13.1) 0.58
Reason for index admission
 Gastro-intestinal 226 (24.0) 33 (20.2) 193 (24.8) 0.21 13 (15.9) 85 (21.1) 0.28 20 (24.7) 108 (28.9) 0.45
 Infection 214 (22.8) 30 (18.4) 184 (23.7) 0.14 15 (18.3) 77 (19.4) 0.86 15 (18.5) 107 (28.6) 0.06
 Malignancy 167 (17.8) 54 (33.1) 113 (14.5) <0.001 28 (34.1) 59 (14.6) <0.001 26 (32.1) 54 (14.4) <0.001
 Inflammatory 83 (8.8) 16 (9.8) 67 (8.6) 0.63 12 (14.6) 45 (11.2) 0.39 4 (4.9) 22 (5.9) 1.0
 (Auto)-intoxication 67 (7.1) 1 (0.6) 66 (8.5) <0.001 1 (1.2) 64 (15.9) <0.001 0 2 (0.5) 1.0
 Renal and/or electrolyte problems 49 (5.2) 9 (5.5) 40 (5.1) 0.85 5 (6.1) 16 (4.0) 0.38 4 (4.9) 24 (6.4) 0.80
 Allergy/anaphylaxis 19 (2.0) 1 (0.6) 18 (2.3) 0.23 1 (1.2) 12 (3.0) 0.71 0 6 (1.6) 0.60
 Syncope 8 (0.9) 0 8 (1.0) 0.36 0 4 (1.0) 1.0 0 4 (1.1) 1.0
 Cardiac 8 (0.9) 1 (0.6) 7 (0.9) 1.0 0 2 (0.5) 1.0 1 (1.2) 5 (1.3) 1.0
 Other 99 (10.5) 18 (11.0) 81 (10.4) 0.82 7 (8.5) 39 (9.7) 0.75 11 (13.6) 42 (11.2) 0.55
AE as reason for index admission 333 (35.4) 65 (39.9) 268 (34.5) 0.19 33 (40.2) 124 (30.8) 0.10 32 (39.5) 144 (38.5) 0.87
Length of stay, days 5 (1–131) 6 (1–66) 5 (1–131) 0.20 6 (166) 4 (178) 0.01 6 (1–36) 7 (1–131) 0.44
Day of discharge, day in weekend 182 (19.4) 33 (20.2) 149 (19.2) 0.75 20 (24.4) 84 (20.8) 0.48 13 (16.0) 65 (17.4) 0.77
Season of discharge
 Spring 251 (26.7) 42 (25.8) 209 (26.9) 0.77 17 (20.7) 107 (26.6) 0.27 25 (30.9) 102 (27.3) 0.51
 Summer 243 (25.9) 47 (28.8) 196 (25.2) 0.34 24 (29.3) 109 (27.0) 0.68 23 (28.4) 87 (23.3) 0.33
 Autumn 234 (24.9) 29 (17.8) 205 (26.4) 0.02 20 (24.4) 106 (26.3) 0.72 9 (11.1) 99 (26.5) 0.002
 Winter 212 (22.6) 45 (27.6) 167 (21.5) 0.09 21 (25.6) 81 (20.1) 0.26 24 (29.6) 86 (23.0) 0.21
  1. Numbers in italic show significant differences
  2. CCI Charlson comorbidity index, ADL activity in daily living, IADL instrumental activity in daily living, AE adverse event
  3. p values are given for statistical tests between the readmission and the control groups
  4. aData of 2 patients were missing