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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Incidence of left atrial abnormalities under treatment with dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and vitamin K antagonists

Variable Dabigatran, N = 68 (22 %) VKA, N = 138 (45 %) Rivaroxaban, N = 100 (33 %) p value for difference between VKA and dabigatran p value for difference between VKA and rivaroxaban p value for difference between dabigatran and rivaroxaban
Age: year
 Median 66 68.5 64 0.16 0.052 0.738
 Interquartile range 58–72 60–74 55.8–72    
Male sex: no. (%) 48 (71 %) 78 (57 %) 57 (57 %) 0.068 1 0.078
Body–mass index
 Median 27.2 27.5 28.4 0.809 0.196 0.209
 Interquartile range 24.9–31.4 25.0–30.9 25.5–32.9    
 Hypertension 43 (63 %) 102 (74 %) 69 (69 %) 0.119 0.562 0.266
 Diabetes mellitus 14 (21 %) 32 (23 %) 18 (18 %) 1 0.266 0.279
LA size: cm2
 Median 4.1 4 4.1 0.122 0.846 0.216
 Interquartile range 3.6–4.5 3.4–4.3 3.1–4.4    
 LA size ≥ 5.5 cm2: no. (%) 2 (3 %) 3 (2 %) 2 (2 %) 1 1 1
LVEF classification: no. (%)
 Normal (≥55 %) 55 (81 %) 119 (86 %) 77 (77 %) 0.567 0.328 0.652
 Mildly reduced (45–54 %) 7 (10 %) 11 (8 %) 14 (14 %)    
 Moderately reduced (30–44 %) 4 (6 %) 7 (5 %) 8 (8 %)    
 Severely reduced (<30 %) 2 (3 %) 1 (1 %) 1 (1 %)    
Renal function; creatinine clearance; classification—no. (%)
 Normal (>80 ml/min) 57 (84 %) 102 (74 %) 74 (74 %) 0.247 0.973 0.266
 Mild impairment (51–80 ml/min) 11 (16 %) 35 (25 %) 25 (25 %)    
 Moderate impairment (31–50 ml/min) 0 (0 %) 1 (1 %) 1 (1 %)    
 Severe impairment (≤30 ml/min) 0 (0 %) 0 (0 %) 0 (0 %)    
Classification of atrial fibrillation—no. (%)
 Paroxysmal 44 (65 %) 81 (59 %) 47 (47 %) 0.792 0.054 0.097
 Persistent 20 (29 %) 49 (36 %) 42 (42 %)    
 Longstanding persistent 0 (0 %) 1 (1 %) 1 (1 %)    
 Permanent 1 (1 %) 3 (2 %) 0 (0 %)    
 Atrial flutter 3 (4 %) 4 (3 %) 10 (10 %)    
CHADS2
 Mean score (±SD) 1.1 (±0.8) 1.5 (±0.9) 1.2 (±0.8) 0.003 0.006 0.521
 Score—no. (%)
 0 or 1 50 (74 %) 76 (55 %) 70 (70 %) 0.029 0.012 0.647
 2 14 (21 %) 42 (30 %) 26 (26 %)    
 ≥3 4 (6 %) 20 (14 %) 4 (4 %)    
CHA2DS2-VASc
 Mean score (±SD) 2.1 (±1.1) 2.7 (±1.4) 2.1 (±1.1) 0.001 0.001 0.837
Score—no. (%)
 0 or 1 20 (29 %) 26 (19 %) 30 (30 %) 0.009 0.003 0.993
 2 25 (37 %) 37 (27 %) 36 (36 %)    
 3 17 (25 %) 36 (26 %) 24 (24 %)    
 ≥4 6 (9 %) 39 (28 %) 10 (10 %)    
 HAS-BLED
 Mean score (±SD) 1.4 (±0.8) 1.7 (±0.8) 1.4 (±0.8) 0.001 0.003 0.496
Score—no. (%)
 0 or 1 43 (63 %) 48 (35 %) 54 (54 %) 0.001 0.011 0.332
 2 19 (28 %) 73 (53 %) 39 (39 %)    
 ≥3 6 (9 %) 17 (12 %) 7 (7 %)    
LAA morphology—no. (%)
 Banded LAA (chicken wings) 37 (54 %) 92 (67 %) 81 (81 %) 0.002 0.005 <0.001
 Non-banded LAA (wind socks, cauliflower, cactus) 31 (46 %) 35 (25 %) 19 (19 %)    
 Unknown 0 (0 %) 11 (8 %) 0 (0 %)    
Medications at time of inclusion—no. (%)
 ACE inhibitor/ARB 41 (60 %) 99 (72 %) 68 (68 %) 0.113 0.568 0.327
 Amiodarone 4 (6 %) 21 (15 %) 9 (9 %) 0.069 0.171 0.564
 Aspirin 14 (21 %) 15 (11 %) 10 (10 %) 0.087 1 0.072
 Beta blocker 61 (90 %) 123 (89 %) 97 (97 %) 1 0.092 0.026
 Calcium antagonist 8 (12 %) 35 (25 %) 18 (18 %) 0.028 0.208 0.385
 Clopidogrel 0 (0 %) 3 (2 %) 0 (0 %) 0.552 0.266 1
 Cardiac glycosides 7 (10 %) 16 (12 %) 19 (19 %) 1 0.138 0.136
 Dronedarone 2 (3 %) 19 (14 %) 2 (2 %) 0.014 0.001 1
 Statin 32 (47 %) 65 (47 %) 33 (33 %) 1 0.077 0.033
 NSAR 16 (24 %) 15 (11 %) 9 (9 %) 0.022 0.67 0.014
 PPI 35 (51 %) 67 (49 %) 42 (42 %) 0.767 0.357 0.27
  1. ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, LA left atrium, LAA left atrial appendage, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, NSAR non-steroidal anti-rheumatic agents, PPI proton-pump inhibitor, SD standard deviation, VKA vitamin K antagonists