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Table 3 Immunohistochemical analysis of chemokine expression in healthy skin compared with injured human skin

From: Chemokine ligand–receptor interactions critically regulate cutaneous wound healing

Genes   Normal skin Day 2 p.o. Day 5 p.o. Day 9 p.o. Day 12 p.o. Genes   Normal skin Day 2 p.o. Day 5 p.o. Day 9 p.o. Day 12 p.o.
CCR1 Neutrophil CCL1 Neutrophil
  Macrophage + ++ ++ + + I-309 Macrophage
  Lymphocyte   Lymphocyte
  Keratinocyte   Keratinocyte + + + + +
  Fibroblast   Fibroblast
  Endothelial cell   Endothelial cell ++ +++ +++ +++ ++
CCR2α Neutrophil CCL4 Neutrophil
  Macrophage MIP- Macrophage + ++ ++ + +
  Lymphocyte   Lymphocyte
  Keratinocyte   Keratinocyte
  Fibroblast   Fibroblast
  Endothelial cell + ++ ++ + +   Endothelial cell + ++ + + +
CCR2β Neutrophil CCL11 Neutrophil
  Macrophage + ++ ++ + + eotaxin Macrophage
  Lymphocyte + + + +   Lymphocyte + + +
  Keratinocyte   Keratinocyte
  Fibroblast   Fibroblast + ++ ++ +++ ++
  Endothelial cell   Endothelial cell + + +++ +++ +
CCR3 Neutrophil CCL17 Neutrophil
  Macrophage TARC Macrophage
  Lymphocyte + ++ ++ +   Lymphocyte
  Keratinocyte + + + + +   Keratinocyte + ++ ++ + +
  Fibroblast + ++ ++ +   Fibroblast
  Endothelial cell + + ++ ++ +   Endothelial cell + +++ +++ ++ +
CCR4 Neutrophil CCL18 Neutrophil
  Macrophage DC-CK1 Macrophage + + +
  Lymphocyte ++ ++ +   Lymphocyte
  Keratinocyte + + + + +   Keratinocyte + ++ ++ ++ +
  Fibroblast +   Fibroblast
  Endothelial cell + + ++ ++ +   Endothelial cell
CCR5 Neutrophil CCL20 Neutrophil
  Macrophage MIP-3α Macrophage
  Lymphocyte   Lymphocyte
  Keratinocyte   Keratinocyte + ++ +++ +++ ++
  Fibroblast   Fibroblast
  Endothelial cell   Endothelial cell
CCR6 Neutrophil CCL24 Neutrophil
  Macrophage eotaxin-2 Macrophage
  Lymphocyte   Lymphocyte
  Keratinocyte ++ ++ ++ ++ ++   Keratinocyte
  Fibroblast   Fibroblast
  Endothelial cell ++ ++ ++ ++   Endothelial cell + + ++ ++ +
CCR8 Neutrophil CCL27 Neutrophil
  Macrophage + ++ ++ + + CTACK Macrophage
  Lymphocyte + + + +   Lymphocyte
  Keratinocyte   Keratinocyte + ++ + + +
  Fibroblast   Fibroblast
  Endothelial cell + + ++ ++ +   Endothelial cell
CCR10 Neutrophil CXCL8 Neutrophil
  Macrophage IL-8 Macrophage
  Lymphocyte + ++ ++ ++   Lymphocyte
  Keratinocyte   Keratinocyte + +++ ++ ++ +
  Fibroblast   Fibroblast
  Endothelial cell ++ + +++ ++ ++   Endothelial cell + ++ ++ ++ +
CXCR1 Neutrophil CXCL9 Neutrophil
  Macrophage Mig Macrophage +++ ++ +
  Lymphocyte   Lymphocyte
  Keratinocyte + + + + +   Keratinocyte + + + + +
  Fibroblast   Fibroblast
  Endothelial cell + ++ ++ ++ +   Endothelial cell
CXCR2 Neutrophil + + CXCL10 Neutrophil
  Macrophage IP-10 Macrophage
  Lymphocyte   Lymphocyte
  Keratinocyte + + + + +   Keratinocyte + + + + +
  Fibroblast   Fibroblast
  Endothelial cell ++ ++   Endothelial cell + ++ +
CXCR3 Neutrophil CXCL12 Neutrophil
  Macrophage SDF-1α Macrophage + +++ +++ ++ +
  Lymphocyte   Lymphocyte      
  Keratinocyte + ++ +++ + +   Keratinocyte
  Fibroblast   Fibroblast
  Endothelial cell +   Endothelial cell + ++ +++ +++ +
CXCR4 Neutrophil        
  Macrophage + +++ +++ + +        
  Lymphocyte   + + + +        
  Keratinocyte + + + ++ ++        
  Fibroblast        
  Endothelial cell + + + + +        
  1. Cryosections (6 µm) of skin samples, derived either from healthy subjects or from subjects who are going through an acne inversa treatment (2, 5, 9 and 12 days after trauma) with secondary wound healing were stained with antibodies directed against the listed chemokine and chemokine receptors. Representative results from four different donors. +, weak; ++, moderate; +++, strong staining