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Table 1 Preoperative and perioperative results in patients managed routinely (group A, early phase) or following a PPMI reduction protocol (group B, late phase)

From: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation with a mechanically expandable prosthesis: a learning experience for permanent pacemaker implantation rate reduction

  Group A (35) Group B (31) p-value
Age (years) 81.4 ± 6.1 79.4 ± 4.7 0.1
Female gender 57.1% 58.1% 0.9
Body mass index 27.3 ± 4.4 27.3 ± 4.2 0.9
LVEF% 55.6 ± 12.1 50.8 ± 16.1 0.1
A-V block first degree 8.6% 9.7% 0.6
Right bundle branch block 14.3% 12.9% 0.5
Left bundle branch block 20.0% 16.1% 0.4
Logistic Euro-score 5.1–49.7; 12.6 3.1–68.0; 14.2 0.2
Euro-score II 1.2–16.4; 3.5 2.0–28.0; 3.8 0.08
STS-score (mortality) 2.0–9.2; 3.5 2.0–16.0; 4.0 0.04
Annulus (mm) 24.4 ± 2.0 24.0 ± 1.9 0.4
LVOT (mm) 24.2 ± 2.1 24.0 ± 2.3 0.4
Bulbus aortae (mm) 31.0 ± 3.5 30.3 ± 2.2 0.4
Calcification vertical extension (mm)a 11.1 ± 4.8 11.3 ± 3.3 0.8
Operative time (min) 46–290; 78 40–135; 80 0.3
Radiation time (mm) 12–43; 23 11–64; 21 0.6
Valve retrieval 3% 9.6% 0.2
Valve full resheating 8.6% 19.2% 0.2
Valve post-dilatation 0 0  
Prosthesis size (mm) 24.9 ± 1.6 24.9 ± 1.5 0.9
Prosthesis/annulus 1.02 ± 0.06 1.03 ± 0.05 0.4
Aortic valve area (cm2) 1.5 ± 0.3 1.5 ± 0.4 0.8
Mean gradient (mmHg) 9.0 ± 4.5 6.3 ± 2.6 0.01
Paravalvular leak (0–1–2) 77.1%–22.9%–0% 87.9%–12.1%–0% 0.08
In-hospital death 0 9.6% 0.09
Stroke 0 0  
AKI 3% 3.8% 0.3
Bleeding (major–minor–none) 8.6%–23%–69% 0–26.9%–73.1% 0.3
New PPMI 34.3% 9.7% 0.02
Early safety (30-days) 100% 90.4% 0.09
  1. LVOT, left ventricular outflow tract; AKI, acute kidney injury; PPMI, permanent pacemaker implantation. Data are presented as absolute numbers, percentages, mean ± standard deviation for normally distributed variables and median with minimum and maximum values for variables with not-normal distribution
  2. aFrom deepest point of calcification to highest point of calcification measured at pre-operative cardiac CT (nadir–zenith)