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Table 2 Preoperative and perioperative results in patients requiring and not requiring PPMI after TAVI with the LOTUS prosthesis

From: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation with a mechanically expandable prosthesis: a learning experience for permanent pacemaker implantation rate reduction

  With PPMI (15) Without PPMI (51) p-value
Age (years) 82.4 ± 5.7 79.9 ± 5.5 0.1
Female gender 46.7% 60.8% 0.3
Body mass index 27.1 ± 5.1 27.4 ± 4.1 0.8
LVEF% 57.0 ± 8.8 52.5 ± 15.0 0.2
Atrial fibrillation 26.7% 19.6% 0.4
A-V block first degree 20.0% 6.0% 0.1
Right bundle branch block 26.7% 9.8% 0.1
Left bundle branch block 6.7% 21.6% 0.1
Logistic Euro-score 5.0–49.7; 12.4 3.1–68.0; 14.0 0.5
Euro-score II 1.2–16.4; 3.4 1.6–27.9; 3.5 0.4
STS-score 1.0–9.1; 3.3 1.2–16.6; 3.7 0.4
Annulus (mm) 24.5 ± 1.4 24.1 ± 2.1 0.5
LVOT (mm) 24.2 ± 1.6 24.1 ± 2.3 0.9
Bulbus aortae (mm) 31.6 ± 3.1 30.5 ± 3.1 0.2
Calcification vertical extension (mm)a 9.4 ± 3.3 11.7 ± 4.4 0.2
Operative time (min) 60–180; 78 40–290; 80 0.4
Radiation time (mm) 14.5–64.7; 24 11.1–42.5; 21.6 0.1
Group B 20% 55% 0.02
Valve retrieval 20% 2.2% 0.04
Valve full resheating 13.3% 13.0% 0.1
Prosthesis size (mm) 25.5 ± 1.5 24.7 ± 1.5 0.09
Prosthesis/annulus 1.05 ± 0.05 1.02 ± 0.06 0.2
Aortic valve area (cm2) 1.7 ± 0.6 1.5 ± 0.3 0.1
Mean gradient (mmHg) 7.5 ± 2.8 7.8 ± 4.3 0.7
Paravalvular leak (0–1–2) 86.7%–13.3%–0 80.4%–19.6%–0 0.7
In-hospital death 6.7% 3.9% 0.5
Hospitalization length (days) 12.2 ± 8.5 8.1 ± 4.7 0.02
Implantation depth mm (left coronary cusp) 5.7 ± 1.8 3.4 ± 1.9 < 0.0001
Implantation depth mm (non-coronary cusp) 3.5 ± 2.9 3.4 ± 2.1 0.9
  1. LVOT, left ventricular outflow tract. Data are presented as absolute numbers, percentages, mean ± standard deviation for normally distributed variables and median with minimum and maximum values for variables with not-normal distribution
  2. aFrom deepest point of calcification to highest point of calcification measured at pre-operative cardiac CT (nadir–zenith)