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Table 1 miRNAs and the related immune responses and signaling pathways during hepatitis C virus infection

From: miRNAs regulate immune response and signaling during hepatitis C virus infection

miRNAs Related pathways Immune responses and roles References
miR-122 JAK/STAT signaling Stabilize the HCV RNA genome and stimulate virus replication
Predict response to therapy with IFN
Impede HCV entry into hepatocytes
miR-155 Wnt signaling
Tim-3 signaling
Enhance the development of inflammatory T-cells
Promote autoimmune inflammation
Regulate IFNr production from NK cells
Increase β-catenin nuclear localization in Huh7 cells
miR-146 TLR signaling Regulate the inflammatory and immune responses
Correlate with cholesterol metabolism
miR-130a JAK/STAT signaling Inhibit IFITM1 and the subsequent innate immune response
Play dual roles in HCV replication by shaping the host innate immune response
[29, 30]
miR-21 TLR signaling
TGF-β1/SMADs signaling
Repress the expression of type I IFN and the subsequent anti-viral response
Target SMAD7
Stimulate the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells
[18, 31, 32]
miR-181a MAPK/ERK signaling Decrease DUSP 6 expression and CD4+ T cell dysfunction [34]
miR-27 PI3K/Akt signaling Inhibit virus infection and promotes lipid storage
Enable the virus to escape immune surveillance
[35, 47]
miR-196 JAK/STAT signaling Suppress Bach1 expression, stimulates HMOX1 expression, and inhibits HCV gene expression. [36,37,38]
miR-125b TLR signaling Abolish the cytokine production [39]
miR-19a JAK/STAT signaling Enhance IFNα and interleukin-6 [42]
miR-192 TGF-β1/SMADs signaling Upregulate TGF-β1 expression
Mediate HCV infection-associated fibrogenesis
miR-152 Wnt signaling Target the WNT1 3′-UTR
Regulate proliferation, G1-S transition, and colony formation in HepG2 cells
miR-491 PI3K/Akt signaling Enhance HCV replication [46]
miR-449a NOTCH signaling Inhibit TNFa-mediated activation of YKL40 [49]