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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study participants

From: Early prolonged ambulatory cardiac monitoring in stroke (EPACS): an open-label randomised controlled trial

CharacteristicPatch-based monitoring (ACTIVE)
(n = 43)
Short-duration Holter (CONTROL)
(n = 47)
P value
Age, year70.7 ± 12.670.0 ± 13.90.82
Sex, no. (%)
 Male26 (60.5)29 (61.7)1.00
 Female17 (39.5)18 (38.3) 
Race or ethnic group, no. (%)
 Asian1 (2.3)2 (4.3)0.80
 Black11 (25.6)10 (21.3) 
 White31 (72.1)35 (74.5) 
Recruitment site, no. (%)
 King’s College Hospital12 (27.9)22 (46.8)0.08
 Princess Royal University Hospital31 (72.1)25 (53.2) 
Index event, no. (%)
 Stroke35 (81.4)43 (91.5)0.22
 TIA8 (18.6)4 (8.5) 
Prior stroke or TIA, no. (%)12 (27.9)7 (14.9)0.20
Score on NIH stroke scale (stroke patients)a2.3 ± 3.72.1 ± 2.60.90
Score on ABCD2 (TIA patients), no.4.1 ± 0.64.2 ± 0.80.87
Hypertension, no. (%)26 (60.5)30 (63.8)0.83
Diabetes, no. (%)10 (23.3)10 (21.3)1.00
CHADS2VASc2 score, no.b4.4 ± 1.24.3 ± 1.00.61
Ischaemic heart disease, no. (%)8 (18.6)5 (10.6)0.37
Hypercholesterolaemia, no. (%)17 (39.5)17 (36.2)0.83
Smoking status, no. (%)
 Ex-smoker12 (27.9)5 (10.6)0.27
 Current smoker6 (14)10 (21.3) 
Use of antiplatelet, no. (%)c
 None30 (69.8)33 (70.2)0.26
 Aspirin5 (11.6)10 (21.3) 
 Clopidogrel6 (14.0)4 (8.5) 
 Aspirin and Clopidogrel2 (4.7)0 (0) 
No. of days from index event to randomisation2.0 ± 1.21.9 ± 1.10.60
  1. Plus–minus values are mean ± SD. P values were calculated with the use of Student’s t test, Wilcoxon Mann–Whitney Rank-Sum test or Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate. TIA denotes transient ischaemic attack
  2. NIH National Institutes of Health, TIA transient ischaemic attack
  3. aScores on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale range from 0 to 42, with higher scores indicating more severe neurologic deficits. The score was not reported for three patients in the patch-based monitoring (ACTIVE) group and four patients in the 24-h Holter monitoring group
  4. bScores on the CHADS2VASc2 risk assessment range from 0 to 6, with higher scores indicating a greater risk of stroke
  5. cAntiplatelet therapy before the index stroke or TIA