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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate analyses using Cox multiple regression for overall survival. Variables presented under multivariate analysis represent the final model after stepwise exclusion

From: The ultimate preoperative C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio is a prognostic factor for survival after pancreatic cancer resection

Covariate Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
HR 95% CI P value HR 95% CI P value
Sex       
 Female 1    1   
 Male 0.632 0.432–0.923 0.018a 1.977 1.191–3.282 0.001
Age (years) 1.034 1.011–1.059 0.004a 1.062 1.030 –1.094 < 0.001
ASA
 I–II 1      
 III–IV 1.374 0.923–2.044 0.117    
ECOG grade
 0–1 1      
 2–4 1.634 0.971–2.748 0.064a    
Haemoglobin 0.961 0.805–1.148 0.661    
Bilirubin 1.000 0.999–1.001 0.833b    
CRP 1.011 1.002–1.020 0.022    
Albumin 0.952 0.920–0.986 0.006    
CAR 1.406 1.038–1.905 0.028a 1.745 1.200–2.539 0.004
mGPS
 0 1      
 1 1.419 0.946–2.128 0.090    
 2 1.953 0.971–3.929 0.061    
CEA 1.011 0.999–1.022 0.074    
CA 19.9 1.215 0.940–1.570 0.138    
Supplementary nutrition
 No 1      
 Enteral 1.264 0.838–1.905 0.264    
 Parenteral 1.612 0.588–3.789 0.272    
Neoadjuvant therapy
 No 1      
 Yes 0.541 0.171–1.710 0.296b    
Approach
 Open or conversion 1      
 Laparoscopy 0.937 0.380–2.306 0.887    
Type resection
 Pancreas head 1      
 Pancreas other 1.187 0.756–1.865 0.456 b    
Complication
 Clavien–Dindo 0-2 1      
 Clavien–Dindo 3-5 1.266 0.778–2.059 0.342    
Tumour size 1.007 0.996–1.018 0.237 b    
Differentiation grade
Well or moderate 1    1   
Poorly 1.271 0.837–1.931 0.261b 2.812 1.627–4.861 < 0.001
Metastatic lymph node ratio 2.946 1.154–7.521 0.024a    
Para-aortic lymph node
 No metastasis     1   
 One or more metastases 3.299 1.738–6.262 < 0.001a 4.489 1.883–10.702 < 0.001
Radicality
 R0 1      
 R1–R2 1.386 0.952–2.018 0.089a    
  1. ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, ECOG Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group scale of performance, CEA carcinoembryonic antigen, CA 19-9 carbohydrate antigen 19-9
  2. aIncluded in stepwise Cox regression because p < 0.1; bIncluded in stepwise Cox regression because of prognostic value in the literature