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Table 2 Characteristics of survivors vs. deaths

From: Heart rate at discharge in patients with acute decompensated heart failure is a predictor of mortality

Patient characteristics All (n=78) Alive (n=48/62%) p value HFrEF (n=58) Alive (n=34/59%) p value HFmrEF (n=20) Alive (n=14/70%) p value
Dead (n=30/38%) Dead (n=24/41%) Dead (n=6/30%)
Age (years) ± SD 70.8±13.7 68.6±13.1 0.472 68.7±14.2 67.9±13.2 0.826 79.2±7.1 70.2±13.1 0.136
Body mass index kg/m2 ± SD 26.7±6.6 28.7±4.7 0.13 27.7±6.8 28.1±4.4 0.809 23.1±4.7 30.3±5.2 0.009
Male/female sex (%/%) 77 / 23 79 / 21 0.79 83/17 76/24 0.525 50/50 86/14 0.091
Ejection fraction (%) ± SD 29.5±10.8 32.9±8.6 0.127 25.5±8.0 28.5±5.9 0.101 45.3±3.0 43.4±3.2 0.231
Mean heart rate (bpm) ± SD 79.1±11.2 72.5±11.9 0.016 80.1±11.7 73.3±12.7 0.041 75.2±8.9 70.6±9.8 0.339
Systolic blood pressure (mmhg) 108.2±16.3 120.4±18.4 0.004 108.5±16.7 114.2±14.7 0.173 107.2±16.1 135.4±18.3 0.004
NYHA functional class
 III/IV (%) 53/47 75/25 0.048 50/50 76/24 0.037 67/33 71/29 0.831
Comorbidities
 Atrial fibrillation (%) 57 35 0.107 46 35 0.419 100 36 0.014
 Diabetes mellitus (%) 53 35 0.055 54 32 0.071 50 57 0.621
 Arterial hypertension (%) 73 77 0.707 71 76 0.629 83 79 0.807
 Hyperlipoproteinemia (%) 57 58 0.885 58 62 0.792 50 50 1.000
 Chronic renal failure (gfr≤ 60 ml/min) 33 13 0.05 38 15 0.069 17 7 0.515
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (%) 30 19 0.251 25 18 0.496 50 21 0.201
 Current smoker 33 42 0.728 38 41 0.94 17 50 0.362
Laboratory values
 Haemoglobin (g/dl) ± SD 12.5±2.1 13.7±1.7 0.009 12.8±2.0 13.8±1.7 0.060 11.4±1.9 13.5±1.8 0.027
 Serum sodium (mmol/l) ± SD 138.0±4.9 139.4±3.4 0.125 138.5±4.4 139.3±3.8 0.429 136.0±6.7 139.7±2.4 0.239
 Cholesterine (mg/dl) ± SD 155.4±38.3 167.5±46.0 0.231 159.7±40.4 169.0±49.4 0.441 138.3±23.7 163.9±41.0 0.174
 Serum creatinine (mg/dl) ± SD 1.82±1.19 1.22±0.38 0.002 1.77±0.86 1.23±0.37 0.008 2.03±2.18 1.19±0.43 0.390
 Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dl) ± SD 93.9±54.1 59.4±22.4 <0.001 92.5±54.6 59.2±19.0 0.008 99.7±57.0 59.8±30.1 0.053
 Ntpro-bnp 11731±15582 6823±9824 0.18 11731±15582 4815±4760 0.23 n.a. 352 n.a.
Medication
 Ace inhibitor or ARB (%) 70 90 0.13 79 88 0.166 33 93 0.122
 Betablocker (%) 90 92 0.664 92 91 0.738 83 93 0.281
 Aldosterone antagonist (%) 57 71 0.374 58 82 0.281 50 43 0.419
 Calcium antagonists (%) 0 17 0.062 0 6 0.481 0 43 0.159
 Diuretics (%) 90 92 0.506 96 97 0.456 67 79 0.614
 Digitalis glycoside (%) 33 25 0.458 33 26 0.496 33 21 0.414
 Amiodarone (%) 13 6 0.287 17 9 0.366 0 0 n.a.
 Lipid lowering therapy (%) 53 48 0.652 50 50 1 67 43 0.11
 Xantine oxidase inihibitors (%) 40 10 0.015 46 9 0.013 17 14 0.203