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Table 1 Clinical and epidemiological features of COVID-19 patients

From: Clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia: an observational cohort study

Epidemiological data Total (n = 401) Mild cases (n = 241) Moderate cases (n = 160) p-value*
Female patients 80 (20%) 50 (20.7) 30 (18.8) 0.624
Male patients 321 (80%) 191 (79.3) 130 (81.3)
Age, years (SD, range) 38.16 (13.43, 1–88) 37.32 (13.6, 1–83) 39.43 (13.1, 1–88) 0.112
  Age ≤ 18 years 16 (4%) 12 (75) 4 (25)
Race
  Middle eastern 193 (48.1) 104 (43.2) 89 (55.6) 0.06
  Asian 200 (49.9) 133 (55.2) 67 (41.9)
  African 5 (1.2) 2 (0.8) 3 (1.9)
  European 3 (0.7) 2 (0.8) 1 (0.6)
Admission location
  HMG Suwaidi Hospital 105 (26.2) 83 (34.4) 22 (13.8)  ≤ 0.001
  HMG Rayan Hospital 102 (25.4) 71 (29.5) 31 (19.4)
  HMG Takhassusi Hospital 44 (11) 33 (13.7) 11 (6.9)
  HMG Olaya Hospital 53 (13.2) 30 (12.4) 23 (14.4)
  Al Hammadi Hospital 97 (24.2) 24 (10) 73 (45.6)
  Frequency of PCR performed (SD, range) 2.56 (1.51, 1–10) 2.57 (1.48) 2.55 (1.56) 0.710
Symptoms
 Cough 215 (53.6) 102 (42.3) 113 (70.6)  ≤ 0.001
 Fatigue 104 (25.9) 50 (20.7) 54 (33.8) 0.004
 Headache 65 (16.2) 38 (15.8) 27 (16.9) 0.768
 Diarrhea 30 (7.5) 17 (7.1) 13 (8.1) 0.690
 Shortness of breath 90 (22.4) 32 (13.3) 58 (36.3)  ≤ 0.001
Body temperature, °C
 Fever upon admission was ≥ 38 °C 146 (36.4) 0 146 (91.3)  ≤ 0.001
 Fever during hospitalization was ≥ 38 °C 62 (15.5) 0 62 (38.8)  ≤ 0.001
 Sore throat 88 (21.9) 32 (13.3) 58 (36.3) 0.052
 Muscle pain 57 (14.2) 22 (9.1) 35 (21.9)  ≤ 0.001
 Joint pain 36 (9) 12 (5) 24 (15) 0.001
 Nausea 26 (6.5) 16 (6.6) 10 (6.3) 0.877
 Rhinorrhea 29 (7.2) 18 (7.5) 11 (6.9) 0.822
 Dysgeusia 22 (5.5) 13 (5.4) 9 (5.6) 0.921
 Vomiting 16 (4) 9 (3.7) 7 (4.4) 0.748
 Anorexia 13 (3.2) 9 (3.7) 4 (2.5) 0.494
 Chest pain 3 (0.7) 2 (0.8) 1 (0.6) 0.816
 Abdominal pain 4 (1) 3 (1.2) 1 (0.6) 0.541
 Sputum production 30 (7.5) 13 (5.4) 1 (0.6) 0.051
 Anosmia 19 (4.7) 13 (5.4) 6 (3.8) 0.448
 Hyposmia 3 (0.7) 2 (0.8) 1 (0.6) 0.816
 Sweating 2 (0.5) 2 (0.8) 0 0.248
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 59 (14.7) 26 (10.8) 33 (20.6) 0.006
 Hyperglycaemia 40 (10) 20 (8.3) 20 (12.5) 0.169
 Chronic kidney disease 1 (0.2) 1 (0.4) 0 0.415
 Chronic heart disease 11 (2.7) 4 (1.7) 7 (4.4) 0.103
 Chronic lung disease 15 (3.7) 9 (3.7) 6 (3.8) 0.994
Obesity
  Class I 34 (8.5) 16 (6.6) 18 (11.3) 0.220
  Class II 10 (2.5) 5 (2.1) 5 (3.1)
  Class III 2 (0.5) 2 (0.8) 0
  Not obese 355 (88.5) 218 (90.5) 137 (85.6)
Smoking
  Non-smoker 366 (91.3) 216 (89.6) 150 (93.8) 0.349
  Smoker 27 (6.7) 19 (7.9) 8 (5)
No. of cigarettes per day
 10–15 cigarettes per day 11 (40.7) 9 (47.3) 2 (25)
 20 cigarettes per day 13 (48.1) 8 (42.1) 5 (62.5)
 30–40 cigarettes per day 3 (11.1) 2 (10.5) 1 (12.5)
 Former smoker 8 (2) 6 (2.5) 2 (1.3)
 Dyslipidemia 19 (4.7) 8 (3.3) 11 (6.9) 0.101
 Pregnant 1 (0.2) 0 1 (0.6) 0.182
 Immunocompromised status 1 (0.2) 1 (0.4) 0 0.415
Laboratory tests
 White cell count, × 109/L 6.56 (3.7) 6.84 (2.3) 6.14 (5.2) 0.069
 Platelet count, × 109/L 236.7 (75.3) 250.6 (79.3) 215.9 (63.7)  ≤ 0.001
 Neutrophil count, × 109/L 4.2 (5) 4.0 (4.0) 4.4 (6.2) 0.425
 Lymphocyte count, × 109/L 2.9 (6.1) 2.63 (2.7) 3.3 (9.1) 0.346
 Alanine aminotransferase, U/L 37.29 (28.8) 35.8 (26.2) 39.4 (32.1) 0.399
 Aspartate aminotransferase, U/L 31.1 (20.5) 28.4 (18.6) 34.9 (22.4)  ≤ 0.001
 C-reactive protein, mg/L 16.99 (32.4) 11.1 (28.4) 28.6 (36.5)  ≤ 0.001
 D-dimer, mg/L 0.6 (1.6) 0.57 (0.98) 0.69 (2.1) 0.028
 Lactate concentration, mmol/L 1.5 (0.5) 1.5 (0.57) 1.45 (0.5) 0.590
 Ferritin (ng/ml) 290.5 (409.6) 201.6 (275.0) 445.2 (541.2)  ≤ 0.001
Radiography
 Chest CT
  Abnormal 67 (16.7) 35 (52.2) 32 (47.7) 0.239
  Normal 3 (0.7) 0 3 (100)
 Chest X-ray
  Abnormal 140 (34.9) 73 (52.1) 67 (47.8) 0.101
  Normal 193 (48.1) 118 (61.1) 75 (38.8)
Treatment
 Oxygen inhalation 32 (8) 6 (2.5) 26 (16.3)  ≤ 0.001
 Amount of oxygen provided (L) 4.03 (2.83) 4.8 (4.4) 3.8 (2.3) 0.746
 Hydroxychloroquine 66 (16.5) 23 (9.5) 43 (26.9)  ≤ 0.001
 Azithromycin 193 (48.1) 74 (30.7) 119 (74.4)  ≤ 0.001
 Oseltamivir 134 (33.4) 47 (19.5) 87 (54.4)  ≤ 0.001
 Vitamin C 18 (4.5) 9 (3.7) 9 (5.6) 0.371
 Vitamin E 17 (4.2) 8 (3.3) 9 (5.6) 0.262
 Ceftriaxone 41 (10.2) 17 (7.1) 24 (15) 0.16
 Enoxaparin 5 (1.2) 1 (0.4) 4 (2.5) 0.085
Prognosis
  Hospitalization 315 (78.6) 185 (76.8) 130 (81.3) 0.074
  Transferred 18 (4.5) 8 (3.3) 10 (6.3)
  Discharged 68 (17) 48 (19.9) 20 (12.5)
Days taken to be SARS-CoV-2 PCR-negative, (SD, range) 3.08 (1.9, 1–11) 3.11 (1.9, 1–11) 3.0 (2.0, 1–10) 0.845
Days of hospitalization, (SD, range) 8.3 (6, 1–42) 7.37 (5.5, 1–34) 9.71 (6.5, 1–42)  ≤ 0.001
  1. COVID-19 = coronavirus disease 2019. SARS-CoV-2 = severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2
  2. Data are n (%) or mean (SD), unless otherwise indicated
  3. *p values suggest the disparity between pediatric and adult patients with moderate clinical type with pneumonia and mild clinical type (asymptomatic or upper respiratory infection)
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