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Table 2 Dietary intakes of participants across tertiles of Na-to-K ratio: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

From: Urinary sodium-to-potassium ratio: a simple and useful indicator of diet quality in population-based studies

Variables Tertile 1 (n = 622) Tertile 2 (n = 621) Tertile 3 (n = 621) P-value
Urinary Na-to-K ratio
 Range < 1.49 1.49–2.37 > 2.37  
 Median 1.03 1.89 3.20  
Energy (kcal/day) 2236 ± 697 2208 ± 678 2276 ± 662 0.209
Fruits (g/day) 440 ± 352 408 ± 338 370 ± 304 0.001
Starched vegetables (g/day) 26.81 ± 25.32 26.89 ± 24.17 25.79 ± 21.91 0.666
Non-starched vegetables (g/day) 322 ± 200 286 ± 164 282 ± 166 < 0.001
Refined grains (g/day) 248 ± 154 264 ± 151 285 ± 165 < 0.001
Whole grains (g/day) 137 ± 95.9 136 ± 104 148 ± 113 0.070
Poultry (g/day) 30.62 ± 27.09 32.80 ± 40.24 29.72 ± 28.82 0.231
Red meat (g/day) 20.58 ± 19.40 21.46 ± 30.62 20.11 ± 17.27 0.586
Low-fat dairy (g/day) 261 ± 188 235 ± 179 228 ± 158 0.003
High-fat dairy (g/day) 111 ± 128 110 ± 123 114 ± 135 0.843
Hydrogenated and animal fat (g/day) 14.99 ± 15.46 15.63 ± 15.22 17.34 ± 17.21 0.029
Vegetable oil (g/day) 10.55 ± 26.58 9.69 ± 9.60 9.00 ± 7.38 0.269
Nuts and seeds (g/day) 14.69 ± 23.12 11.58 ± 13.65 12.04 ± 14.50 0.004
Beans (g/day) 41.99 ± 31.50 42.74 ± 34.79 43.77 ± 36.01 0.654
Sweets (g/day) 51.13 ± 88.90 48.43 ± 51.33 46.59 ± 39.05 0.449
Salty snacks (g/day) 16.12 ± 57.38 14.46 ± 20.38 17.04 ± 22.53 0.471
Fast foods (g/day) 15.94 ± 21.74 14.71 ± 21.82 18.29 ± 33.35 0.051
Tea and coffee (mL/day) 586 ± 511 580 ± 457 575 ± 453 0.918
Sweetened beverages (mL/day) 42.39 ± 66.04 46.37 ± 90.13 47.58 ± 75.44 0.471
  1. Data are mean ± SD
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