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Table 1 Baseline and intra-operative characteristics in patients with and without surgery-related loss of muscle quantity or quality

From: Risk factors for surgery-related muscle quantity and muscle quality loss and their impact on outcome

Factors Total n = 128 (100%) Muscle quantity loss n = 67 (52%) No muscle quantity loss n = 61 (48%) P-value Muscle quality loss n = 83 (65%) No muscle quality loss n = 45 (35%) P-value
Age, mean (SD), years 65.5 (8.7) 65.4 (7.7) 65.6 (9.6) 0.896 66.9 (7.8) 62.7 (9.6) 0.008
Sex, male 89 (69.5%) 50 (74.6%) 39 (63.9%) 0.249 62 (74.7%) 27 (60.0%) 0.085
BMI, mean (SD), kg/m2 25.6 (3.1) 25.9 (3.0) 25.5 (3.2) 0.473 25.8 (3.1) 25.5 (3.1) 0.677
CEAa, median (IQR), μg/L 6.3 (2.8–22.3) 5.7 (2.4–19.0) 8.0 (3.2–33) 0.146 6.5 (2.9–35.0) 5.6 (2.6–15.0) 0.322
ASA score
 I 14 (10.9%) 7 (10.4%) 7 (11.5%) 0.580 6 (7.2%) 8 (17.8%) 0.184
 II 107 (83.6%) 55 (82.1%) 52 (85.2%)   72 (86.7%) 35 (77.8%)  
 III 7 (5.5%) 5 (7.5%) 2 (3.3%)   5 (6.0%) 2 (4.4%)  
Comorbidities
 Diabetes 7 (5.5%) 5 (7.5%) 2 (3.3%) 0.298 5 (6%) 2 (4.4%) 0.707
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 6 (4.7%) 5 (7.5%) 1 (1.6%) 0.120 4 (4.8%) 2 (4.4%) 0.924
Charlson Comorbidity Index
 0 103 (80.5%) 53 (79.1%) 50 (82%) 0.786 66 (79.5%) 37 (82.2%) 0.867
 I 19 (14.8%) 10 (14.9%) 9 (14.8%)   13 (15.7%) 6 (13.3%)  
 II 5 (3.9%) 3 (4.5%) 2 (3.2%)   3 (3.6%) 2 (4.4%)  
 III 1 (0.8%) 1 (1.5%) 0 (0.0%)   1 (1.2%) 0 (0.0%)  
CT scan
 Time-frame pre-scan and OK, mean (SD), days 28.2 (9.6) 28.4 (9.9) 27.9 (9.2) 0.755 27.1 (9.5) 30.1 (9.5) 0.091
 Time-frame OK and post-scan, mean (SD), days 7.1 (3.0) 7.4 (3.4) 6.6 (2.5) 0.130 6.7 (2.7) 7.6 (3.5) 0.175
Operation type
 Laparoscopic/open 15 (11,7%)/113 (88,3%) 6 (9.0%)/61 (91%) 9 (14.8%)/52 (85.2%) 0.308 4 (4,8%)/79 (95.2%) 11 (24,4%)/34 (75,6%) 0.001
 Minor/major 74 (57.8%)/54 (42.2%) 37 (55.2%)/30 (44.8%) 37 (60.7%)/24 (39.3%) 0.534 47 (56.6%)/36 (43.3%) 27 (60.0%)/18 (40%) 0.712
 Resection/resection + RFA 104 (81.3%)/24 (18.8%) 49 (73.1%)/18 (26.9%) 55 (90.2%)/6 (9.8%) 0.014 65 (78.3%)/18 (21.7%) 39 (86.7%)/6 (13.3%) 0.248
Operation parameters
 Blood loss, median (IQR), mL 400 (200–750) 400 (187–700) 400 (200–800) 0.728 500 (200–763) 300 (100–625) 0.062
 Operation time, mean (SD), min 134.2 (61.6) 130.2 (58.9) 138.8 (64.6) 0.434 142.7 (65) 118.1 (51.1) 0.035
  1. SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, BMI body mass index, CEA carcinoembryonic antigen, ASA American Society of Anaesthesiologists, CT computer tomography, RFA radiofrequency ablation
  2. The values given are numbers of patients unless indicated otherwise. Bold variables were considered statistically significant (P < 0.05)
  3. a28 patients missing