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Table 1 Studies of FMT in allo-HSCT patients

From: Tandem fecal microbiota transplantation cycles in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient targeting carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae colonization: a case report and literature review

Authors Study type Number of patients Age Sex Number of allo-HSCT patients Immunocompromission Outcome Route of FMT Administration Times of FMT FMT-related adverse events (number of times)
FMT for GVHD treatment
 Kakihana, 2016 Japan [14] Pilot study 4 46 (42–64) 2 M 2F 1 No mention 3 complete response ,1 partial response Nasoduodenal tube 7 Abdominal pain (4)
Diarrhea (3)
Pharyngolaryngeal pain (3)
Nausea (1) Belch (1)
 Spindelboeck, 2017 Austria [17] Retrospective case series 3 60 (53–61) 1 M 2F 3 No mention 2 complete resolution, 1 partial resolution Colonoscopy 9 None
 Qi, 2018 China [15] Pilot study 8 35.6 (20–48) 3 M 5F 8 No mention All the patients achieved clinical symptomatic remission Nasoduodenal tube 12 None
 Kaito, 2018 Japan [16] Case report 1 21 F 1 No mention Bacterial diversity was restored, with improvement of diarrhea Oral capsule   Transient fever Herpes zoster
 Mao, 2020 China [67] Case report 1 31 M 1 No mention Intestinal aGVHD was controlled and did not recur again Oral capsule 2 None
 Bilinski, 2021 Poland [63] Prospective multicenter study 13 41.5 (23–66) 9 M 4F 13 No mention Overall response rate reached 62.5% (10/16) Nasoduodenal tube 16 Septic shock (1)
Sepsis (1)
Norovirus-mediated GI tract infection (1)
FMT for MDRB decolonization
 Bilinski, 2017 Poland [51] Prospective single-center study 20 51 (22–77) 14 M 6F 6 8 patients with neutropenia (< 1.8 × 109 neutrophils/L), but not severe neutropenia (< 0.5 × 109 /L) 15/20 (75%) decolonization Nasoduodenal tube 25 Vomiting (1)
Diarrhea (25)
 Innes, 2017 UK [68] Case report 1 63 M 1 FMT was administrated 2 weeks before allo-HSCT All kinds of MRD were decolonized Nasogastric tube 1 Mild, self-limited nausea, loose stool and abdominal discomfort
 Battipaglia, 2019 France [52] Retrospective single-center study 10 48 (16–64) 4 M 6F 6 (4 patients before allo-HSCT) Neutrophil count was > 1 × 109 /L in all patients but one who had a neutrophil count of 0.17 × 109 /L 7/10 (70%) decolonization Enema (10)
Nasogastric tube (3)
13 Constipation (1) Diarrhea (2)
FMT for rCDI treatment
 Webb, 2016 USA [69] Retrospective case series 7 43 (33–51) 4 M 3F 7 No mention 7/7 (100%) without rCDI Nasojejunal tube (6) Colonoscopy (2) 8 Mild self-limited GI discomfort/bloating (2) Self-limited chills (1)
Bloating and urgency (2)
(one patient was suspected of having small intestinal bacterial overgrowth)
Self-limited right upper quadrant pain (1)
 Moss, 2017 USA [70] Retrospective, case series 8 56 (38–71) 3 M 5F 6 (two patients after auto-HSCT) No mention 8/8 (100%) patients with resolution of rCDI Oral capsule 8 Vomiting (1)
 Bluestone, 2018 USA [71] Retrospective, case series 3 8 (2–12) 2 M 1F 3 No mention 1/3 (33.3%) patient without rCDI Gastric tube (6) Colonoscopy (1) Gastrojejunal tube (1) 8 Nausea and retching (1) Vomiting (1)
FMT for intestinal microbiome reconstruction
 DeFilipp, 2018 USA [72] Open-label single-group pilot study 13 63 (26–71) 6 M 7F 13 FMT capsules were administered no later than 4 weeks after neutrophil engraftment FMT led to early expansion of microbiome diversity Oral capsule 13 Severe abdominal pain (1)
 Taur, 2019 USA [73] Randomized-controlled clinical trial 14 52.5 (32–71) 6 M 8F 14 FMT was administrated a median of 18 (8–27) days after engraftment Diversity and composition of gut microbiota were restored Enema 14 None
 The total number of FMT times 136
Diarrhea n = 31 (22.79%)
Abdominal pain/discomfort/bloating/urgency n = 10 (7.35%)
Nausea n = 3 (2.21%)
Vomiting n = 3 (2.21%)
Pharyngolaryngeal pain n = 3 (2.21%)
Others (belch/fever/herpes zoster/septic shock/sepsis/norovirus-mediated GI tract infection/constipation/chills/right upper quadrant pain) n = 9 (6.62%)
  1. allo-HSCT allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, FMT fecal microbiota transplantation, GVHD graft-versus-host disease, M male, F female, aGVHD acute graft-versus-host disease, GI gastrointestinal, MDRB multidrug-resistant bacteria, rCDI recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, auto-HSCT autogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation