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Table 5 Quality assessment of studies

From: Determinants of influenza vaccine hesitancy among pregnant women in Europe: a systematic review

Author Year Study design Sample size Risks of bias Overall quality
Blanchard-Rohner et al. 2012 Cross-sectional study, quantitative questionnaire 261 Selection bias: women without Swiss nationality were included in the sample Moderate
Bödeker et al. 2014 Cross-sectional study, quantitative questionnaire 1030 Selection bias: overrepresentation of women who are generally more interested in health topics,
exclusion of women with insufficient knowledge of German language
Reporting bias: vaccination status was self-reported
Moderate
Bödeker et al. 2015 Longitudinal study, quantitative, standardized questionnaire 838 Selection bias:
overrepresentation of women with a higher educational level, underrepresentation of women with immigration backgrounds
Reporting bias: vaccination status was self-reported
Low
Descamps et al. 2019 Interview and medical records 11,752 Selection bias: underrepresentation of women with immigration backgrounds Moderate
Maltezou et al. 2019 Cross-sectional study, quantitative, standardized questionnaire 304 Selection bias: low percentage of women in sample who were not vaccinated Moderate
Maurici et al. 2015 Cross-sectional study, quantitative, standardized questionnaire 309 Selection bias:
overrepresentation of women who were generally more interested in health topics
Reporting bias: vaccination status was self-reported
Low
O’Shea et al. 2018 Cross-sectional study, qualitative, semi-structured interviews 198 Selection bias: exclusion of women with immigration background, underrepresentation of non-vaccinated women Low
Prospero et al. 2019 Cross-sectional study, quantitative questionnaire 366 Selection bias: women who were generally more interested in health topics, high percentage of women in third trimester, overrepresentation of women with negative attitudes toward vaccination Low
Tuells et al. 2018 Cross-sectional, descriptive study 1569 Selection bias not further specified Moderate
Vila-Candel et al. 2016 Cross-sectional study, qualitative telephone interviews 200 Selection bias: overrepresentation of women with health-seeking behavior Moderate
Wilcox et al. 2019 Cross-sectional study, quantitative and qualitative questionnaire 314 Selection bias:
possibly missing subsets of population who were anti-vaccination
Reporting bias: self-report of vaccine status
Low