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Table 3 List of published MSC-based clinical studies for COVID-19 treatment

From: Potential therapeutic options for COVID-19: an update on current evidence

Source of MSCs Study type and number of enrollment (N) Country Results References
Umbilical cord Double-blind clinical trial phase 1/2a; 24 USA No adverse events, decreasing IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, and GM-CSF [111]
Umbilical cord Clinical trial phase 2; 101 China Reducing the proportions of solid component lesion volume, no adverse events [112]
Umbilical cord Clinical trial phase 1;18 China No adverse events, Decreasing IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1 [113]
Umbilical cord Randomized clinical trial; 41 China No adverse effects, decreasing CRP and IL-6 [114]
Umbilical cord and placental Randomized clinical trial phase 1; 11 Iran No serious adverse events, decreasing TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-8, IL-6, and CRP [115]
Menstrual blood-derived MSCs Pilot clinical trial; 2 China FiO21 decreased, SaO22 and PO23 improved, and adsorbing bilateral lung exudate lesions [116]
Menstrual blood-derived MSCs Phase I clinical trial; 44 China Lower mortality, SpO2 was improved [117]
AT-MSC Randomized clinical trial phase 1; 13 Spain No adverse events, reducing IL-6, CRP, LDH ferritin, and D-dimer, and increasing lymphocytes [118]
Unknown Pilot clinical trial; 10 China No adverse events reduced CRP and TNF-α, increased IL-10, normalization of immune cell populations [119]