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Table 1 Characteristics of 1,228 trauma patients with emergency operation

From: Duration and predictors of emergency surgical operations - basis for medical management of mass casualty incidents

Characteristic Number(Percent) or Mean ± SD
Patients in Trauma Registry 20,815
Patients fulfilling inclusion criteria 9,988
Patients with emergency operation within 6 hours (n) 1,228
Number of emergency operations 1,793
Blunt injury 1158 (94.3%)
Age (years) 37.1 ± 17.9
Male gender 868 (70.7%)
Intubation rate prehospital 922 (75.1%)
Prehospital  
Chest tube insertion on-scene 128 (10.4%)
Pulse rate on-scene (beats/min) 99 ± 26.2
Blood pressure on-scene (mmHg) 106 ± 36.4
Shock on-scene (blood pressure < 90 mmHg) 429 (34.9%)
Prehospital infusion volume (ml) 2,079 ± 1.461
Closed chest cardiac massage on-scene 41 (3.3%)
GCS on-scene (points) 9 ± 5.0
GCS ≤ 8 on-scene 597 (48.6%)
Anisocoria on-scene 183 (14.9%)
Time from accident to hospital admission (min) 68.0 ± 33.0
Trauma room/in-hospital  
Pulse rate on TR admission (beats/min) 95 ± 25.2
Blood pressure on TR admission (mmHg) 109 ± 34.8
Shock on TR admission (blood pressure < 90 mmHg) 368 (30.0%)
Base excess in TR -5.1 ± 6.3
Hemoglobin concentration in TR (g/dL) 9.9 ± 3.8
Thromboplastin time in TR (%) 65.4 ± 25.6
Number of PRBC transfused until ICU 9.5 ± 11.4
Infusion volume in TR until ICU (ml) 5,246 ± 6172
Computed tomography in trauma room 799 (65.1%)
Ventilation length of time, ICU (days) 10.8 ± 14.1
ICU length of stay (days) 15.4 ± 17.1
Hospital length of stay (days) 28.2 ± 31.0
ISS (points) 36.5 ± 13.8
New ISS (points) 42.8 ± 14.2
AIS head ≥ 3 678 (55.2%)
AIS thorax ≥ 3 717 (58.4%)
AIS abdomen ≥ 3 679 (55.3%)
AIS extremities ≥ 3 578 (47.1%)
Mortality rate 381 (31.0%)
Early mortality rate (< 24 h) 192 (15.6%)
  1. GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; TR, Trauma Room; PRBC, packed red blood cells; ISS, Injury Severity Score; ICU, Intensive Care Unit; AIS, abbreviated injury scale.