Skip to main content

Table 1 Studies in a chronological order focusing on adherence to prescribed oral medication in adult HD patients

From: Adherence to prescribed oral medication in adult patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis: A critical review of the literature

Study, year Included patients Medication type % Non-adherent Nonadherence definition/assessment Results
Wenerowicz, 1978 [15] 19 PB 60 P > 4.5 mg/dl PSR (questionnaire) Patients with internal locus of control1 orientation showed higher compliance than with external locus
Cummings, 1982 [51] 116 PB 70 P > 5.5 mg/dl PSR (interview) Situational factors and psychosocial variables major contributors to adherence
Betts, 1988 [52] 46 PB 74 P > 5 mg/dl PSR (questionnaire) Length of time on HD, age, educational level and response to illness not significantly related to adherence
Weed-Collins, 1989 [22] 30 PB 64 P > 5.5 mg/dl PSR (questionnaire) Perceived barriers ("forgetting" and "being away from home") most significant predictors of compliance, women significantly more compliant
Blanchard, 1990 [53] 40 PB, CAS, Vits 28 PSR (questionnaire) Majority of HD patients knew dosing schedules but knowledge about drug treatment was grossly deficient
Bame, 1993 [23] 1230 PB, AHT, CAS 50 P > 6.0 mg/dl Prevalence of noncompliance consistent with previous studies; older age and higher income associated with compliance
Kaplan, 1994 [7] 30 PB, AHT 67 PSR (questionnaire) Reporting missing a dose Drug selection and medication compliance contained greatest number of potential problems
Cleary, 1995 [18] 51 AHT, PB, CAS, Vits 61 P > 4.5 mg/dl (interview) Patients with long-term HD more compliant with AHT and CAS than with PB
Lin, 1997 [54] 86 PB, CAS 24 - 61 P > 4.59 mg/dl, PSR, nurses' assessment Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scale had only slight influence on measures of compliance
Curtin, 1997 [17] 135 AHT, PB 42 - 80 MEMS Patients ≤ 65 yrs made more dosing errors with AHT and missed taking PB on more days than patients > 65 yrs
Leggat, 1998 [16] 6251 PB 22 P > 7.5 mg/dl Younger patients and smokers with higher rates of noncompliance; blacks significantly less noncompliant than whites
Curtin, 1999 [6] 135 AHT, PB 73 PSR, pill count, MEMS African-Americans with higher rates of noncompliance
Caraballo Nazario, 2001 [19] 53 AHT, PB, CAS 75 PSR, Reporting missing a dose (structured interview) Significant association between compliance and educational level
Horne, 2001 [55] 47 AHT, PB, CAS 57 PSR, Reporting missing a dose (self report) Nonadherence correlated with concerns about potential adverse effects of medication
Tomasello, 2004 [56] 129 PB 38-51 PSR (taking < 80% of medication), P > 5.5 mg/dl Compliance did not account for the large difference in prescribed pill burden
Rahman, 2004 [57] 205 AHT 23 PSR, Reporting missing a dose Good adherence to AHT therapy
Holley, 2006 [20] 39 AHT, PB 21 PSR, Reporting missing a dose (structured interview) Inadequate prescription coverage, lack of transportation, and medication cost contribute to noncompliance
Lindberg, 2007 [58] 144 AHT, PB, CAS, Vits 80 Discrepancy between self-report and medication list Deviation between consumption and prescription in chronic HD patients
Hirth, 2008 [21] 5478 AHT, PB, CAS 3 *-29 ** Reporting costrelated nonadherence (questionnaire) Cost-related nonadherence varies across countries, substantial international variation
  1. Abbreviations: PB Phosphate binder, AHT Antihypertensives, CAS Ca supplements including calcitriol, Vits Vitamins, MEMS medication event monitoring system, * Japan, ** USA; 1defined as a high expectation that one's actions have a causal relationship with the produced consequences