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Table 1 Disease and conditions associated with pneumatosis intestinalis

From: Natural history, clinical pattern, and surgical considerations of pneumatosis intestinalis

Pulmonary Autoimmune and systemic Drug induced
   Asthma    Lupus variants    Corticosteroids
   COPD    Polymyositis    Chemotherapeutic agents
   Emphysema    Dermatomyositis    Lactulose
   Bronchitis    Polyarteritis nodosa    Sorbitol
   Pulmonary fibrosis    Scleroderma    Glucosidase inhibitor
   Cystic fibrosis    Sacroidose    Chloral hydrate
     Celiac sprue  
Gastrointestinal Infectious Organtransplantation
   IBD    HIV and AIDS    Bone marrow e.g. for leukemia
   Diverticulitis    Virus (CMV, rota-, adeno-, varicella-    Kidney, Lung, Liver
   Colitis incl. toxic variants and    zoster virus)    Graft versus host
   clostridium difficile    Candida albicans  
   Enteritis incl. bacteriel, virus, fungal and atypical forms    Mycobacterium tuberculosis  
   Toxic megacolon Iatrogenic Vascular
   Appendicitis    Blunt abdominal trauma    Mesenteric vascular disease
   Intestinal obstruction, pseudo-    Endoscopy    Intestinal infarction and ischemia
   obstruction, volvulus    Postsurgical intestinal anastomosis  
   Bowel stenosis incl. pyloric    Jenunoileal bypass Idiopathic (primary)
   stenosis    Barium enema  
   Adynamic ileus    Enteric tube placement  
   Carcinoma    PEEP ventilation  
   Peptic ulcer   
   Celiac sprue   
  1. COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; IBD, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis; HIV and AIDS, human immunodificiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; positive end-exparatory pressure, PEEP