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Table 1 Baseline of clinical and demographic characteristics among groups according to exacerbation frequency

From: Predictors of exacerbation frequency in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Parameters Group 1 (n = 116) Group 2A (n = 64) Group 2B (n = 47) Total (n = 227)
Age (mean ± SD, yrs) 71.78 ± 6.36 71.02 ± 7.24 72.19 ± 7.30 71.65 ± 6.80
Male, % 73.3 67.2 66.0 70.0
Height (mean ± SD, cm) 169.6 ± 2.32 171.2 ± 3.19 170.7 ± 2.56 170.9 ± 3.03
Weight (mean ± SD, kg) 67.06 ± 4.10 67.60 ± 3.78 71.20 ± 3.98 68.90 ± 2.75
BMI (mean ± SD, kg/m2) 23.58 ± 3.31 23.05 ± 4.30 24.42 ± 3.68 23.60 ± 3.70
Current smoker, % 56.0 57.8 66.0 58.6
Numbers of preceding year exacerbationa 0 (0 to 1.0) 0.5 (0 to 2.0) 1.0 (0 to 2.0) 0 (0 to 1.0)
GOLD grade     -
GOLD 1, % 4.3 6.3 0 4.0-
GOLD 2, % 16.4 9.4 8.5 12.8-
GOLD 3, % 45.7 45.3 57.4 48.0-
GOLD 4, % 33.6 39.1 34.0 35.2-
FEV1 (mean ± SD, L)b 0.81 ± 0.36 0.75 ± 0.33 0.66 ± 0.29 0.76 ± 0.34-
FEV1 (mean ± SD, % predicted) 38.76 ± 16.90 37.61 ± 17.08 34.49 ± 11.91 37.55 ± 16.07-
FVC, (mean ± SD, L)c 1.50 ± 0.54 1.42 ± 0.49 1.27 ± 0.53 1.43 ± 0.53-
pH (mean ± SD) 7.40 ± 0.04 7.40 ± 0.04 7.40 ± 0.04 7.40 ± 0.04-
PaCO2 (mean ± SD, mmHg)d 48.03 ± 9.97 51.35 ± 10.45 49.78 ± 12.04 49.33- ± 10.61
PaO2 (mean ± SD, mmHg) 67.42 ± 11.67 67.10 ± 14.30 65.56 ± 13.01 66.94 ± 12.70-
Cor pulmonale, %e 34.5 54.7 63.8 46.3-
Comorbidity, %f 70.7 75.0 89.4 75.8-
Cardiovascular disease, % (n) 62.9 (73) 79.7 (51) 74.5 (35) 70.0 (159) -
Cerebrovascular disease, % (n) 28.4 (33) 23.4 (15) 36.2 (17) 28.6 (65) -
Diabetes mellitus, % (n) 14.7 (17) 14.1 (9) 12.8 (6) 14.1 (32) -
Neoplasms, % (n) 7.8 (9) 7.8 (5) 10.6 (5) 8.4 (19) -
Osteoporosis, % (n) 2.6 (3) 3.1 (2) 4.3 (2) 3.1 (7) -
Arrhythmia, % (n) 2.6 (3) 1.6 (1) 4.3 (2) 2.6 (7) -
Total comorbidity 1 (0 to 3.0) 1 (0 to 4.0) 1 (0 to 3.6) 1 (1.0-2.0) -
Charlson index (mean ± SD)g 5.30 ± 1.77 5.33 ± 1.94 5.62 ± 1.53 5.37 ± 1.77-
Medicine at home, % 29.3 40.6 31.9 33.0-
LTOT at home, % 6.9 15.6 10.6 10.1-
HMV, % 1.7 4.7 2.1 2.6-
NPPV in hospitalization, %*h 16.4 35.9 51.1 29.1-
  1. BMI, body mass index; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in one second; FVC, forced vital capacity; HMV, home mechanical ventilation; LTOT, long-term oxygen treatment; NPPV, non-invasive positive pressure ventilation; PaCO2, arterial carbon dioxide tension; PaO2, arterial oxygen tension.
  2. a:Pgroup 1-group 2B and Pgroup 1-group 2A < 0.001;
  3. b:Pgroup 1-group 2B = 0.012;
  4. c:Pgroup 1-group 2B = 0.013;
  5. d:Pgroup 1-group 2B = 0.044;
  6. e:Pgroup 1-group 2A = 0.008; and Pgroup 1-group2B = 0.001;
  7. f:Pgroup 1-group 2B = 0.011;
  8. g:Pgroup 1-group2B = 0.014;
  9. h:Pgroup 1-group 2A = 0.003; and Pgroup 1-group 2B < 0.001.