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Table 1 Characterization of studied groups

From: Influence of lifestyle characteristics and VDR polymorphisms as risk factors for intervertebral disc degeneration: a case–control study

Characteristics DD Control p-value* Adjusted OR (95% CI) p-valueα
Gender
 Male 57 (48%) 23 (21%) < 0.001 Ref.a Ref.
 Female 62 (52%) 89 (79%) 0.22 (0.11–0.44) < 0.001
Educational level
 Elementary school 32 (35.2%) 15 (15.6%) 0.002 Ref. Ref.
 High school 54 (59.3%) 55 (57.3%) 0.776 1.12 (0.47–2.71) 0.789
 College 5 (5.5%) 26 (27.1%) < 0.001 0.22 (0.06–0.83) 0.025
Pain localization
 Low back 86 (93.5%)
 Low back + cervical 6 (6.5%)     
Smoker
 No 70 (74%) 87 (91%) 0.003 Ref.  
 Yes 24 (26%) 9 (9%) 2.84 (1.13–7.68) 0.027
Physical activity
 No 92 (77%) 60 (62%) 0.018 Ref.  
 Yes 27 (23%) 36 (38%) 0.64 (0.32–1.27) 0.204
Posture at work
 Seated 29 (33%) 22 (26%) 0.285 Ref  
 Standing 58 (67%) 63 (74%) 0.38 (0.17–0.84) 0.170
Load weight at work
 No 37 (42%) 73 (76%) < 0.001 Ref.  
 Yes 51 (58%) 23 (24%) 2.00 (0.95–4.20) 0.066
Characteristics DD Control p-value* Adjusted OR (95% CI) p-valueα
Median (95% CI)
Age (years old) 40.0 (38.0;42.0) 32.0 (31.0;35.0) < 0.001** 1.12 (1.07–1.18) < 0.001
BMI 25.9 (25.2; 27.0) 25.4 (24.5; 26.6) 0.643** 0.99 (0.92–1.07) 0.837
  1. DD intervertebral disc degeneration, CI confidence interval, BMI body mass index
  2. * Chi square test
  3. αAdjusted for age and gender
  4. aMann–Whitney test