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Table 3 Characteristics of the patients with and without atrial fibrillation detected by the patch-based monitoring

From: Early prolonged ambulatory cardiac monitoring in stroke (EPACS): an open-label randomised controlled trial

CharacteristicPatients with atrial fibrillation (n = 7)Patients without atrial fibrillation (n = 36)P value
Age, year77.4 ± 6.168.6 ± 14.60.02
Male, no. (%)4 (57.1)22 (61.1)1.00
Index event, no. (%)
 Stroke5 (71.4)30 (83.3)0.60
 TIA2 (28.6)6 (16.7) 
Prior stroke or TIA, no. (%)2 (28.6)10 (27.8)1.00
Hypertension, no. (%)6 (85.7)20 (55.6)0.22
Diabetes, no. (%)1 (14.3)9 (25.0)1.00
History of ischaemic heart disease, no. (%)4 (57.1)4 (11.1)0.02
Smoking status, no. (%)
 Ex-smoker4 (57.1)8 (22.2)0.10
 Current smoker0 (0)6 (16.7) 
CHADS2VASc2 score, no. (%)a5.0 ± 0.64.3 ± 1.20.03
No. of days from index event to randomisation2.3 ± 2.32.0 ± 1.00.73
Echocardiographic parametersb
 Left atrial enlargementc6 (85.7)11 (39.2)0.04
 Left ventricular ejection fraction (%)53.2 ± 4.553.3 ± 4.30.94
Arrhythmia detection on patch-based monitoring
 Detection of VT5 (71.4)10 (27.8)0.04
 Number of episodes of VT1.1 ± 0.91.3 ± 3.50.81
 Detection of VEs7 (100)35 (97.2)1.00
 Percentage of total beats as VEs3.4 ± 1.78.2 ± 10.50.44
 Detection of SVEs7 (100)36 (100)
 Percentage of total beats as SVEs3.1 ± 1.83.0 ± 2.90.97
 Detection of SVT5 (83.3)27 (75.0)1.00
 Number of SVT episodes53.2 ± 63.216.4 ± 25.40.22
  1. Plus–minus values are mean ± SD. P values were calculated with the use of Student’s t test, Wilcoxon Mann–Whitney Rank-Sum test or Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate. TIA denotes transient ischaemic attack
  2. SVE supraventricular ectopics, SVT supraventricular tachycardia, TIA transient ischaemic attack, VE ventricular ectopics, VT ventricular tachycardia
  3. aScores on the CHADS2VASc2 risk assessment range from 0 to 6, with higher scores indicating a greater risk of stroke
  4. bTransthoracic echocardiography and/or transoesophageal echocardiography was performed in 6 and 28 patients in the PAF and non-PAF groups, respectively
  5. cLeft atrial enlargement was defined as left atrial diameter ≥ 40 mm or left atrial volume index ≥ 29 mL/m2