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Table 1 Summary of surgical methods applied to achieve bone healing prior to utilization of an individual healing attempt with a tissue-engineered construct including a medical-grade polycaprolactone and tricalcium phosphate scaffold

From: Convergence of scaffold-guided bone regeneration and RIA bone grafting for the treatment of a critical-sized bone defect of the femoral shaft

Time after trauma


Surgical treatment

 + 6 weeks

Local infection with multi-resistant Gram-negative Escherichia coli with intramedullary nail (IMN) in situ

Procedural change to external fixation and Masquelet technique with vancomycin-loaded cement spacer

 + 10 weeks

Critical-size femoral defect with established Masquelet induced membrane

IMN fixation and Reamer–Irrigator–Aspirator® (RIA) bone grafting mixed with Cerament G®

 + 14 months

Persistent pain and non-union

Insertion tricortical iliac crest graft (lateral aspect of femur) with Cerament G® and secured with additional plate

 + 21 months

Resorption of tricortical iliac crest graft and ongoing pain during loadbearing

Implantation of patient-specific medical-grade scaffold in combination with autologous bone graft and bone morphogenetic protein-2