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Table 1 Summarizes of potential drugs under investigation in clinical trials against COVID-19

From: Potential therapeutic options for COVID-19: an update on current evidence


Drug target

Related disease

Results of studies




RdRp inhibitor


Clinical improvement and viral clearance within 7 or 14 days, lower needing to supplemental oxygen therapy



Nucleoside analog/NS5A inhibitor


Improving clinical outcomes, reduce mortality rate and need for ICU/IMV

[37, 38]


RNA mutagenesis


Highly effective at reducing nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 infectious virus and viral RNA, has a favorable safety and tolerability profile



NS3/4A protease inhibitor


Significantly shorter mean time to achieve both negative nucleic acid testing and hospital stays


Anti-inflammatory drugs


JAK inhibition

Rheumatoid arthritis

Faster clinical improvement, significant chest CT improvement

[41, 42]


JAK inhibition

Rheumatoid arthritis

Lower risk of death or respiratory failure through day 28



JAK inhibition


Beneficial effects on survival and duration of mechanical ventilation



Agonist for the sigma-1 receptor


Lower likelihood of clinical deterioration over 15 days



Inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production

Inflammation, immune system disorders

Decreased the recovery time, the need for transfer to intensive care and the severity markers C-reactive protein, D-dimer and LDH, lower need for a ventilator



Inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production


Reduced the likelihood of needing urgent medical care and reduced time to recovery, reduced hospital admissions or deaths

[49, 50]


NF-κB-coronavirus effect and chloroquine-like endocytosis inhibition


Lower treatment time, improve prognosis and eliminate pathogens, with fewer adverse reactions


 Type I interferons

Balances the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory agents

Multiple sclerosis

Decreased mortality rate and time of hospitalization

[52, 53]

Other most common drugs


Angiotensin receptor blocker


Safe and reduced morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, anti-inflammatory effects

[54, 55]


Inhibition of the pyruvate: ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductase cycle


Improvement in clinical, virologic and inflammatory outcomes in moderate COVID-19, safe and significantly reduced viral load in early use

[56, 57]


Prevention of viral entry by altering endosomal pH, Prevention of viral replication by inhibition of autophagy


Accelerated time to recovery about 3 to 5 days in moderate to severe COVID-19 patients especially those with co-morbidities



TMPRSS2 protease blocker


The early administration reduced the ICU transfer, intubation, and the mortality rate

[59, 60]

 Dornase alfa

Recombinant human deoxyribonuclease I

Cystic fibrosis

Improvement in oxygenation, reduction in ventilatory support

[61, 62]


Selective alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist


Effective sedative and may improve oxygenation, significantly reduced the intubation rate and ICU length of stay by 2.9 days, did not change the mortality rate decline in heart rate and high incidence of bradycardia and hypotension

[63, 64]


Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor


Lower risk of death or intubation in hospitalized patients