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Table 1 Summarizes of potential drugs under investigation in clinical trials against COVID-19

From: Potential therapeutic options for COVID-19: an update on current evidence

Drugs Drug target Related disease Results of studies References
Antivirals
 Favipiravir RdRp inhibitor Influenza Clinical improvement and viral clearance within 7 or 14 days, lower needing to supplemental oxygen therapy [34,35,36]
 Sofosbuvir/daclatasvir Nucleoside analog/NS5A inhibitor HCV Improving clinical outcomes, reduce mortality rate and need for ICU/IMV [37, 38]
 Molnupiravir RNA mutagenesis Influenza Highly effective at reducing nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 infectious virus and viral RNA, has a favorable safety and tolerability profile [39]
 Danoprevir NS3/4A protease inhibitor HCV Significantly shorter mean time to achieve both negative nucleic acid testing and hospital stays [40]
Anti-inflammatory drugs
 Ruxolitinib JAK inhibition Rheumatoid arthritis Faster clinical improvement, significant chest CT improvement [41, 42]
 Tofacitinib JAK inhibition Rheumatoid arthritis Lower risk of death or respiratory failure through day 28 [43]
 Imatinib JAK inhibition Cancer Beneficial effects on survival and duration of mechanical ventilation [44]
 Fluvoxamine Agonist for the sigma-1 receptor Anti-depressant Lower likelihood of clinical deterioration over 15 days [45]
 Methylprednisolone Inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production Inflammation, immune system disorders Decreased the recovery time, the need for transfer to intensive care and the severity markers C-reactive protein, D-dimer and LDH, lower need for a ventilator [46,47,48]
 Budesonide Inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production Asthma Reduced the likelihood of needing urgent medical care and reduced time to recovery, reduced hospital admissions or deaths [49, 50]
 Artesunate NF-κB-coronavirus effect and chloroquine-like endocytosis inhibition Malaria Lower treatment time, improve prognosis and eliminate pathogens, with fewer adverse reactions [51]
 Type I interferons Balances the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory agents Multiple sclerosis Decreased mortality rate and time of hospitalization [52, 53]
Other most common drugs
 Telmisartan Angiotensin receptor blocker Hypertension Safe and reduced morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, anti-inflammatory effects [54, 55]
 Nitazoxanide Inhibition of the pyruvate: ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductase cycle Anti-parasitic Improvement in clinical, virologic and inflammatory outcomes in moderate COVID-19, safe and significantly reduced viral load in early use [56, 57]
 Niclosamide Prevention of viral entry by altering endosomal pH, Prevention of viral replication by inhibition of autophagy Anti-parasitic Accelerated time to recovery about 3 to 5 days in moderate to severe COVID-19 patients especially those with co-morbidities [58]
 Bromhexine TMPRSS2 protease blocker Mucolytic The early administration reduced the ICU transfer, intubation, and the mortality rate [59, 60]
 Dornase alfa Recombinant human deoxyribonuclease I Cystic fibrosis Improvement in oxygenation, reduction in ventilatory support [61, 62]
 Dexmedetomidine Selective alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist Sedation Effective sedative and may improve oxygenation, significantly reduced the intubation rate and ICU length of stay by 2.9 days, did not change the mortality rate decline in heart rate and high incidence of bradycardia and hypotension [63, 64]
 Fluoxetine Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor Antidepressant Lower risk of death or intubation in hospitalized patients [65]