- Open Access
Pathophysiology of the endothelin system - lessons from genetically manipulated animal models
© I. Holzapfel Publishers 2009
- Received: 28 November 2008
- Accepted: 3 December 2008
- Published: 28 January 2009
Shortly after discovery of ET-1 in 1988, the entire endothelin system was characterized. The endothelin system consists of the three peptides ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3, their G-protein-coupled receptors endothelin receptor A and B (ETRA and ETRB) and the two endothelin-converting enzymes (ECE-1 and ECE-2). Genetically modified animal models are an important tool in biomedical research. Here we describe the key findings obtained from genetically modified animal models either over-expressing compounds of the ET system or lacking these compounds (knockout mice). Results from the different transgenic and knockout models disclose that the ET system plays a major role in embryonic development. Two ET system-dependent neural crest-driven developmental pathways become obvious: one of them being an ET-1/ETAR axis, responsible for cardio-renal function and development as well as cranial development; the other seems to be an ET-3/ETBR mediated signalling pathway. Mutations within this axis are associated with disruptions in epidermal melanocytes and enteric neurons. These findings led to the discovery of similar findings in humans with Hirschsprung disease. In adult life the ET system is most important in the cardiovascular system and plays a role in fibrotic remodelling of the heart, lung and kidney as well as in the regulation of water and salt excretion.
- Enteric Neuron
- Renal Sympathetic Nerve Activity
- Collect Duct
- Epidermal Melanocyte
- Fibrotic Remodelling
Genetically modified animal models are an important part of medical research. By inducing conditions similar to human diseases in animals, pathophysiologic hypotheses and therapeutic strategies can be tested and evaluated.
The endothelin (ET) system plays a complex role in physiologic and pathophysiologic functions of the body. In order to analyse the role of single components of the endothelin system in specific organs and tissues several transgenic and knockout (KO) animal models have been developed.
The ET system consists of the three peptides ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3, their G-protein-coupled receptors endothelin receptor A and B (ETRA and ETRB) and the two endothelin-converting enzymes (ECE-1 and ECE-2) which convert the precursor big-ETs to the biologically active forms. The ET system is expressed in various tissues and cells. Its different components are often counteracting in an autocrine and paracrine way.
Because of its strong vasoconstrictive effect the ET system plays a role in the development of hypertension and atherosclerosis. It is also involved in cardiac diseases because of effects on inotropy and chronotropy. ET has also been shown to be involved in states of portal hypertension and acute and chronic renal failure .
In the following, this article outlines the genetically modified animal models, which have been established in order to obtain a better understanding of the ET system.
A model in which the human ET-1 gene under the control of its natural promoter was transferred into the germline of mice was established independently by two research groups [2, 3]. Both groups observed similar results: the over expression of the ET-1 gene creates a phenotype with characteristic, age-dependent pathologic alterations of the kidney whilst blood pressure remains normal. The most evident effects of the elevated plasma and tissue concentrations of ET-1 are the development of renal interstitial fibrosis, renal cysts and glomerulosclerosis, leading to a progressive decrease in glomerular filtration rate in aged mice. In these transgenic models the profibrotic effect of ET-1 is most ostentatious whereas hypertension can only be induced by salt-loading. This was unexpected since previous studies showed ET-1 to be an potent vasoconstrictor when administered intravenously [4–7].
A bolus injection of the nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor L-NAME induces an exaggerated hypertensive response in ET-1 transgenic mice as well as in ET-2 transgenic rats [8, 9]. This suggests that the nitric oxide system as a vasodilator system is involved.
In an animal model of crossbreds of ET-1 transgenic mice (ET+/+) and mice in which the gene for the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was knocked out  this assumption was supported. Compared to the normotensive wild type and ET+/+, the crossbred ET+/+ eNOS KO have a significantly elevated blood pressure. This is also seen in ET+/+ inducible NOS KO crossbreds  which corroborates the hypothesis that the NO system counterregulates the ET overexpression in the ET-1 transgenic model leading to a normotensive phenotype.
The ET-1 transgenic model also brought out some interesting findings about the role of endothelin in the etiology of pulmonary diseases. The development of pulmonary fibrosis and chronic lymphocytic inflammation in the absence of pulmonary hypertension was observed in the transgenic animals , suggesting ET-1 to be involved in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis and bronchiolitis.
Endothelium-restricted overexpression of human ET-1 does not result in elevated blood pressure, however altered vascular structure and function in resistance vessels can be observed. This is a sign of blood pressure independent effects of endothelium-generated ET-1 on vasculature .
Conditional cardiac overexpression of endothelin-1 induces inflammation and dilated cardiomyopathy in mice indicating that ET-1 acts as a proinflammatory molecule in the heart .
In rats overexpressing the human ET-2 gene under control of its natural promoter a blood pressure-independent fibrotic remodelling of the kidney is seen but is mainly restricted to the glomeruli. This is most probably due to the preferential expression of the transgene within the glomeruli in ET-2 transgenic animals , whereas the transgene is ubiquitously expressed within the entire kidney of ET-1 transgenic mice .
ET-3 plays an important role in the development of epidermal melanocytes . A tetracyclin-responsive melanocyte-specific lineage transgenic system was created and used to conditionally regulate the overexpression of ET-3 in different stages of melanocyte development. Investigations showed that ET-3 interacts with precursors and differentiated melanocytes . The activation of the transgene in mice leads to a hyperpigmented phenotype both in embryonic development and in mature mice.
Homozygous ET-1 KO mice die within 15-30 minutes after birth due to craniofacial abnormalities resulting in an inability to breath normally . Furthermore they display malformations of cardiovascular system , thymus and thyroid . These affected tissues and organs are predominantly formed by cranial neural crest-derived ectomesenchymal cells. No abnormalities in other organs such as the lung, kidney and central nervous system can be observed.
Similar craniofacial and cardiovascular malformations are seen in mice with disruption of the ETAR gene. The important role of ET-1 in skeletal development during intrauterine life was recently confirmed by using prepro-ET-1-lacZ-transgenic mice .
The examination of expression patterns of ETARs and ET-1 suggests that ET-1/ETAR interaction is essential in cranial bone and connective tissue formation as well as in the development of the heart and its outflow tract .
Heterozygous ET-1 KO mice which have lower serum levels of ET-1 than wild type mice paradoxically develop elevated blood pressure . Enhanced basal and hypercapnia-induced renal sympathetic nerve activity in the heterozygous ET-1 KO mice seem to be involved in elevation of blood pressure [23, 24]. Some other causes that might contribute to blood pressure elevation in heterozygous ET-1 KO mice have been excluded, such as salt sensitivity or respiratory abnormalities [25, 26].
Collecting duct (CD)-specific ET-1 KO mice do not have gross morphologic abnormalities. Plasma ET-1 levels are not affected, however urinary excretion of ET-1 is reduced. CD ET-1 KO mice are hypertensive but show no differences in body weight, urine volume, creatinine clearance, sodium and potassium excretion, urine and plasma osmolality, plasma aldosteron concentration and renin activity. CD ET-1 KO mice are salt-sensitive and exhibit reduced sodium excretion during the first three days of high salt diet. Amiloride and furosemide are able to prevent sodium retention and exacerbation of hypertension. However, they do not reduce blood pressure in CD ET-1 KO mice on a normal sodium diet .
Plasma vasopressin (AVP) concentrations are substantially reduced in CD ET-1 KO mice, despite all other aspects of water metabolism being similar. The response to continuous infusion of 1-deamin-8-Darginine vasopressin is stronger in CD ET-1 KO mice. There seems to be an increased renal sensitivity to the effects of AVP suggesting that ET-1 acts as a physiological autocrine regulator of AVP action in the collecting duct .
Thus, CD-derived ET-1 seems to be an important physiological regulator of renal salt and water handling and systemic blood pressure.
CD-specific KO of the ETAR has no effect on blood pressure or urinary sodium excretion in mice, independently of salt intake. Those mice have increased plasma AVP levels but do not show differences of renal water excretion under baseline conditions. However they have a more rapid decrease in urine osmolality following an acute water loading. During exogenous AVP infusion CD ETAR KO mice increase urine osmolality similar to WT mice but have a more rapid subsequent fall in urine osmolality during sustained AVP administration. The lower AVP responsiveness in CD ETAR KO mice is contradictory to the results seen in CD ET-1 KO mice. These animals have elevated AVP sensitivity, and impaired ability to excrete an acute water load. This implies that ET-1 must exert its influence on vasopressin through CD ETBR and/or through paracrine effects .
At 6 month of age mice with disruption of the ET-1 gene in cardiomyocytes (CM ET-1 KO) have a significantly lower fractional shortening and develop a dilated left ventricle (LV). During the next month the left ventricle systolic function of CM ET-1 KO mice declines and ultimately, they die at much younger ages (median life expectancy of CM ET-1 KO: 11 months, WT: 2 years). Histological characterization of the CM ET-1 KO hearts reveal dilated heart chambers with heterogeneity of myocyte size, increased fibrosis and raised apoptosis.
At the age of 2 months, aortic banding leads to dilated cardiomyopathy in CM ET-1 KO mice but to LV hypertrophy in WT mice .
Transcriptional and Western blot analyses suggest that increased apoptosis in CM ET-1 KO is mediated by enhanced activity of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). CM ET-1 KO hearts also have diminished NF-κB activity, amounting to diminution of downstream inhibitors of TNF signaling .
CM ET-1 KO mice are resistant to the hypertrophic stress of treatment with thyroid hormone. While mice with intact ET-1 gene develop a pronounced LV hypertrophy, CM ET-1 KO mice show only a marginal increase in LV mass.
These findings indicate that the interaction of locally produced ET-1 with thyroid hormone, is essential in the development of thyroid hormone induced myocardial hypertrophy .
There are no ET-2 knockout models described in the published literature.
ET-3 KO mice exhibit aganglionic megacolon and pigmentary disorders of the skin and choroidal layer of the retina. These findings indicate that ET-3 is essential in the development of two neural crest-derived cell lineages, epidermal and choroidal melanozytes and enteric ganglion neurons [16, 30, 32].
Blood pressure and heart rate of infant ET-3 KO mice are not different from those in age matched WT mice. These results suggest that ET-3 is not involved in cardiovascular regulation at least in early life before they die of complications of the megacolon .
Phenotypes of animals with natural mutations or with a targeted disruption of the ETBR gene are similar to that of ET-3 KO animals [16, 34]. This underlines the importance of ET-3/ETBR-mediated signaling in the development of melanocytes and enteric neurons.
A naturally occurring rodent model of the described phenotype is the spotting lethal (sl/sl) rat which carries a deletion of the ETBR gene.
To establish a viable animal model it was necessary to support a normal enteric nervous system development. ETBR deficient sl/sl rats were rescued by breeding them with rats harboring a dopamine-betahydroxylase (DBH)-ETBR transgene. This transgene leads to the development of a normal enteric nervous system. The resulting transgenic rats (DBH-ETBR; ETBRsl/sl) are healthy but present with total absence of ETBR in all non-adrenergic tissues including the kidneys . Those ETBR-deficient rats are normotensive on a sodium-deficient diet, mildly hypertensive on a standard diet and exhibit severe hypertension on a high-sodium diet .
Their endothelial function is impaired but it was shown that it is independent of the salt-enriched diet and therefore not responsible for the hypertension .
In young sl/sl rats fractional sodium excretion is markedly reduced. When treated with the specific epithelial sodium channel blocker amiloride the animals show increased excretion of sodium . This seems to be due to a lack of the inhibitory property of the ETBR on the epithelial sodium channel activity. This data indicates that a reduced renal ETBR activity might contribute to a salt-sensitive hypertension.
The effect of the ETBR on the progression of diabetic nephropathy was analyzed by rendering the transgenic animals diabetic with streptozotocin. These animals develop severe hypertension and show an enhanced functional renal impairment compared to diabetic WT animals. Further analyses suggested the elevated plasma levels of ET-1 to be responsible for the hypertension and not the renin-angiotensin system or the NO system .
In a model of endothelial cell-specific ETBR KO, the animals showed endothelial dysfunction but no hypertension in response to a high salt diet . This points out that the salt-induced hypertension seen in the model of rescued ETBR-deficient rats is not mediated by endothelial cells.
A CD-specific ETBR KO causes salt sensitive hypertension and sodium retention . Taken together with the results from the CD-specific ET-1 KO, these findings point out an ET-1/ETBR axis which has influence on systemic blood pressure at least partially mediated through autocrine inhibition of CD sodium reabsorption. Yet it is not only the renal ETBR which is crucial for the hypertension since ETBR deficient mice with transplanted normal kidneys are hypertensive as well .
The highly specific ET converting-enzymes (ECEs) are membrane-bound metalloproteases which catalyse the cleavage of a Trp21 bond in the precursor big-endothelins resulting in active endothelins. Two isoenzymes ECE-1 and ECE-2 have been identified [43, 44] and their role in the ET system was investigated by creating KO models.
Most of the ECE-1 KO animals die in utero because of an embryonic lethal phenotype of cardiac abnormalities. Those severe defects of patterning of the great vessels and formation of the outflow tract are not found to this extent in other KO models of the endothelin system .
The surviving mice have craniofacial abnormalities strikingly similar to those of the ET-1 KO and ETAR KO animals. The animals also present with an absence of epidermal melanocytes and enteric neurons of the distal gut, the phenotype known from the ET-3 KO and ETBR KO mice [18, 22]. This combined phenotype corroborates the assumption that ECE-1 by activating both ET-1 and ET-3 in vivo has an influence on the development of distinct subsets of neural crest cell lineages.
The tissue levels of ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3 were measured as whole embryo extracts and compared to those of WT animals. ET-3 is markedly reduced whereas the levels of ET-1 and ET-2 are still about 50% of the WT mice. However, biologically active ET seems not to be sufficiently produced at the sites crucial for normal embryonic development.
Unlike the ECE-1 KO mice, animals with a homozygous KO of ECE-2 show no embryonic developmental disorders. They are healthy, fertile and have a normal life span .
kidney: renal cysts, renal interstitial fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis
lung: fibrosis and chronic inflammation
endothelium specific ET+/+
vascular remodelling and endothelial dysfunction
cardiac specific ET+/+
elevated blood pressure
craniopharyngeal and cardiovascular malformations
elevated blood pressure
collecting duct-specific ET-1-/-
elevated blood pressure
aganglionic megacolon, pigmentary disorders
craniopharyngeal and cardiovascular malformations
aganglionic megacolon, pigmentary disorders
diabetic rescued ETBR-/-
low-renin hypertension, progressive renal failure
endothelial cell-specific ETBR-/-
endothelial dysfunction, normotensive on high-salt diet
collecting duct-specific ETBR-/
elevated blood pressure, increasing blood pressure and impaired sodium
excretion on high-salt diet
severe cardiac developmental disorders, craniofacial abnormalities, aganglionic megacolon, pigmentary disorders
worsened ECE-1-/-embryonic phenotype
Taken together, results from the different transgenic and knockout models disclose that the ET system plays a major role in embryonic development. Two ET system-dependent neural crest-driven developmental pathways become obvious: one of them being an ET-1/ETAR axis, responsible for normal cardiac and cranial development ; the other seems to be a ET-3/ETBR mediated signalling pathway. Mutations within this axis are associated with disruptions in epidermal melanocytes and enteric neurons. These findings led to the discovery of similar findings in humans with Hirschsprung disease [48, 49].
In adult life the ET system is most important in the renal and cardiovascular system as shown by a chronically activated ET system which results in a blood pressure-independent fibrosis of kidneys and lungs. Especially collecting duct-derived ET-1 seems to have influence on the physiologic regulation of renal salt and water handling and systemic blood pressure via ETBR.
The creation and investigation of genetically modified animals has contributed significantly to the understanding of ET function in vivo.
- Kedzierski RM, Yanagisawa M: Endothelin system: The double-edged sword in health and disease. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2001, 41: 851–876. 10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.41.1.851View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hocher B, ThoneReineke C, Rohmeiss P, Schmager F, Slowinski T, Burst V, et al.: Endothelin-1 transgenic mice develop glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, and renal cysts but not hypertension. Journal of Clinical Investigation 1997,99(6):1380–1389. 10.1172/JCI119297PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shindo T, Kurihara H, Maemura K, Kurihara Y, Ueda O, Suzuki H, et al.: Renal damage and salt-dependent hypertension in aged transgenic mice overexpressing endothelin-1. Journal of Molecular Medicine-JMM 2002,80(2):105–116. 10.1007/s00109-001-0284-4View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yanagisawa M, Kurihara H, Kimura S, Tomobe Y, Kobayashi M, Mitsui Y, et al.: A Novel Potent Vasoconstrictor Peptide Produced by Vascular Endothelial-Cells. Nature 1988,332(6163):411–415. 10.1038/332411a0View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hocher B, ThoneReineke C, Bauer C, Raschack M, Neumayer HH: The paracrine endothelin system: Pathophysiology and implications in clinical medicine. European Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry 1997,35(3):175–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Miyauchi T, Masaki T: Pathophysiology of endothelin in the cardiovascular system. Annual Review of Physiology 1999, 61: 391–415. 10.1146/annurev.physiol.61.1.391View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rothermund L, Paul M: The role of endothelin in hypertension. Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension 1998,7(4):451–456. 10.1097/00041552-199807000-00017View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liefeldt L, Schonfelder G, Bocker W, Hocher B, Talsness CE, Rettig R, et al.: Transgenic rats expressing the human ET-2 gene: a model for the study of endothelin actions in vivo. Journal of Molecular Medicine-JMM 1999,77(7):565–574. 10.1007/s001099900026View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hocher B, Schwarz A, Slowinski T, Bachmann S, Pfeilschifter J, Neumayer HH, et al.: In-vivo interaction of nitric oxide and endothelin. J Hypertens 2004,22(1):111–119. 10.1097/00004872-200401000-00020View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Quaschning T, Voss F, Relle K, Kalk P, Vignon-Zellweger N, Pfab T, et al.: Lack of endothelial nitric oxide synthase promotes endothelin-induced hypertension: Lessons from endothelin-1 transgenic/endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 2007,18(3):730–740. 10.1681/ASN.2006050541View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Quaschning T, Voss F, Herzfeld S, Relle K, Kalk P, Godes M, et al.: Lack of iNOS Impairs Endothelial Function in Endothelin-1 Transgenic Mice. Kidney Blood Press Res 2008,31(2):127–134. 10.1159/000124285View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hocher B, Schwarz A, Fagan KA, Thone-Reineke C, El Hag K, Kusserow H, et al.: Pulmonary fibrosis and chronic lung inflammation in ET-1 transgenic mice. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 2000,23(1):19–26.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Amiri F, Virdis A, Neves MF, Iglarz M, Seidah NG, Touyz RM, et al.: Endothelium-restricted overexpression of human endothelin-1 causes vascular remodeling and endothelial dysfunction. Circulation 2004,110(15):2233–2240. 10.1161/01.CIR.0000144462.08345.B9View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yang LL, Gros R, Kabir MG, Sadi A, Gotlieb AI, Husain M, et al.: Conditional cardiac overexpression of endothelin-1 induces inflammation and dilated cardiomyopathy in mice. Circulation 2004,109(2):255–261. 10.1161/01.CIR.0000105701.98663.D4View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hocher B, Liefeldt L, Thone-Reineke C, Orzechowski HD, Distler A, Bauer C, et al.: Characterization of the renal phenotype of transgenic rats expressing the human endothelin-2 gene. Hypertension 1996,28(2):196–201.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baynash AG, Hosoda K, Giaid A, Richardson JA, Emoto N, Hammer RE, et al.: Interaction of endothelin-3 with endothelin-B receptor is essential for development of epidermal melanocytes and enteric neurons. Cell 1994,79(7):1277–1285. 10.1016/0092-8674(94)90018-3View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Garcia RJ, Ittah A, Mirabal S, Figueroa J, Lopez L, Glick AB, et al.: Endothelin 3 induces skin pigmentation in a keratin-driven inducible mouse model. J Invest Dermatol 2008,128(1):131–142. 10.1038/sj.jid.5700948View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kurihara Y, Kurihara H, Suzuki H, Kodama T, Maemura K, Nagai R, et al.: Elevated blood pressure and craniofacial abnormalities in mice deficient in endothelin-1. Nature 1994,368(6473):703–710. 10.1038/368703a0View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kurihara Y, Kurihara H, Oda H, Maemura K, Nagai R, Ishikawa T, et al.: Aortic arch malformations and ventricular septal defect in mice deficient in endothelin-1. J Clin Invest 1995,96(1):293–300. 10.1172/JCI118033PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kurihara Y, Kurihara H, Maemura K, Kuwaki T, Kumada M, Yazaki Y: Impaired development of the thyroid and thymus in endothelin-1 knockout mice. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1995,26(Suppl 3):S13-S16.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Slowinski T, Kalk P, Christian M, Schmager F, Relle K, Godes M, et al.: Cell-type specific interaction of endothelin and the nitric oxide system: pattern of prepro-ET-1 expression in kidneys of l-NAME treated prepro-ET-1 promoter-lacZ-transgenic mice. Journal of Physiology-London 2007,581(3):1173–1181. 10.1113/jphysiol.2007.131201View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Clouthier DE, Hosoda K, Richardson JA, Williams SC, Yanagisawa H, Kuwaki T, et al.: Cranial and cardiac neural crest defects in endothelin-A receptor-deficient mice. Development 1998,125(5):813–824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ling GY, Cao WH, Onodera M, Ju KH, Kurihara H, Kurihara Y, et al.: Renal sympathetic nerve activity in mice: comparison between mice and rats and between normal and endothelin-1 deficient mice. Brain Res 1998,808(2):238–249. 10.1016/S0006-8993(98)00848-8View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kuwaki T, Ling GY, Onodera M, Ishii T, Nakamura A, Ju KH, et al.: Endothelin in the central control of cardiovascular and respiratory functions. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1999,26(12):989–994. 10.1046/j.1440-1681.1999.03177.xView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Morita H, Kurihara H, Kurihara Y, Shindo T, Kuwaki T, Kumada M, et al.: Systemic and renal response to salt loading in endothelin-1 knockout mice. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998,31(Suppl 1):S557-S560.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kuwaki T, Cao WH, Kurihara Y, Kurihara H, Ling GY, Onodera M, et al.: Impaired ventilatory responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in mutant mice deficient in endothelin-1. Am J Physiol 1996,270(6 Pt 2):R1279-R1286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ahn D, Ge Y, Stricklett PK, Gill P, Taylor D, Hughes AK, et al.: Collecting duct-specific knockout of endothelin-1 causes hypertension and sodium retention. J Clin Invest 2004,114(4):504–511.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ge Y, Ahn D, Stricklett PK, Hughes AK, Yanagisawa M, Verbalis JG, et al.: Collecting duct-specific knockout of endothelin-1 alters vasopressin regulation of urine osmolality. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2005,288(5):F912-F920. 10.1152/ajprenal.00432.2004View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ge Y, Stricklett PK, Hughes AK, Yanagisawa M, Kohan DE: Collecting duct-specific knockout of the endothelin A receptor alters renal vasopressin responsiveness, but not sodium excretion or blood pressure. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2005,289(4):F692-F698. 10.1152/ajprenal.00100.2005View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhao XS, Pan W, Bekeredjian R, Shohet RV: Endogenous endothelin-1 is required for cardiomyocyte survival in vivo. Circulation 2006,114(8):830–837. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.577288View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shohet RV, Kisanuki YY, Zhao XS, Siddiquee Z, Franco F, Yanagisawa M: Mice with cardiomyocyte-specific disruption of the endothelin-1 gene are resistant to hyperthyroid cardiac hypertrophy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004,101(7):2088–2093. 10.1073/pnas.0307159101PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rice J, Doggett B, Sweetser DA, Yamagisawa H, Yanagisawa M, Kapur RP: Transgenic rescue of aganglionosis and piebaldism in lethal spotted mice. Developmental Dynamics 2000,217(1):120–132. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0177(200001)217:1<120::AID-DVDY11>3.0.CO;2-UView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kuwaki T, Ishii T, Ju K, Yanagisawa M, Fukuda Y: Blood pressure of endothelin-3 null (-/-) knockout mice and endothelin A receptor null (-/-) knockout mice under anaesthesia. Clin Sci (Lond) 2002,103(Suppl 48):48S-52S.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hosoda K, Hammer RE, Richardson JA, Baynash AG, Cheung JC, Giaid A, et al.: Targeted and natural (piebaldlethal) mutations of endothelin-B receptor gene produce megacolon associated with spotted coat color in mice. Cell 1994,79(7):1267–1276. 10.1016/0092-8674(94)90017-5View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gariepy CE, Williams SC, Richardson JA, Hammer RE, Yanagisawa M: Transgenic expression of the endothelin-B receptor prevents congenital intestinal aganglionosis in a rat model of Hirschsprung disease. J Clin Invest 1998,102(6):1092–1101. 10.1172/JCI3702PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gariepy CE, Ohuchi T, Williams SC, Richardson JA, Yanagisawa M: Salt-sensitive hypertension in endothelin-B receptor-deficient rats. J Clin Invest 2000,105(7):925–933. 10.1172/JCI8609PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Quaschning T, Rebhan B, Wunderlich C, Wanner C, Richter CM, Pfab T, et al.: Endothelin B receptor-deficient mice develop endothelial dysfunction independently of salt loading. J Hypertens 2005,23(5):979–985. 10.1097/01.hjh.0000166838.55688.7eView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hocher B, Dembowski C, Slowinski T, Friese ST, Schwarz A, Siren AL, et al.: Impaired sodium excretion, decreased glomerular filtration rate and elevated blood pressure in endothelin receptor type B deficient rats. J Mol Med 2001,78(11):633–641. 10.1007/s001090000158View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pfab T, Thone-Reineke C, Theilig F, Lange I, Witt H, Maser-Gluth C, et al.: Diabetic endothelin B receptor-deficient rats develop severe hypertension and progressive renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006,17(4):1082–1089. 10.1681/ASN.2005080833View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bagnall AJ, Kelland NF, Gulliver-Sloan F, Davenport AP, Gray GA, Yanagisawa M, et al.: Deletion of endothelial cell endothelin B receptors does not affect blood pressure or sensitivity to salt. Hypertension 2006,48(2):286–293. 10.1161/01.HYP.0000229907.58470.4cView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ge Y, Bagnall A, Stricklett PK, Strait K, Webb DJ, Kotelevtsev Y, et al.: Collecting duct-specific knockout of the endothelin B receptor causes hypertension and sodium retention. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2006,291(6):F1274-F1280. 10.1152/ajprenal.00190.2006View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ohkita M, Wang Y, Nguyen ND, Tsai YH, Williams SC, Wiseman RC, et al.: Extrarenal ETB plays a significant role in controlling cardiovascular responses to high dietary sodium in rats. Hypertension 2005,45(5):940–946. 10.1161/01.HYP.0000161878.81141.62View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Emoto N, Yanagisawa M: Endothelin-converting enzyme-2 is a membrane-bound, phosphoramidon-sensitive metalloprotease with acidic pH optimum. J Biol Chem 1995,270(25):15262–15268. 10.1074/jbc.270.25.15262View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xu D, Emoto N, Giaid A, Slaughter C, Kaw S, deWit D, et al.: ECE-1: a membrane-bound metalloprotease that catalyzes the proteolytic activation of big endothelin-1. Cell 1994,78(3):473–485. 10.1016/0092-8674(94)90425-1View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yanagisawa H, Yanagisawa M, Kapur RP, Richardson JA, Williams SC, Clouthier DE, et al.: Dual genetic pathways of endothelin-mediated intercellular signaling revealed by targeted disruption of endothelin converting enzyme-1 gene. Development 1998,125(5):825–836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yanagisawa H, Hammer RE, Richardson JA, Emoto N, Williams SC, Takeda S, et al.: Disruption of ECE-1 and ECE-2 reveals a role for endothelin-converting enzyme-2 in murine cardiac development. J Clin Invest 2000,105(10):1373–1382. 10.1172/JCI7447PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brand M, Kempf H, Paul M, Corvol P, Gasc JM: Expression of endothelins in human cardiogenesis. J Mol Med 2002,80(11):715–723. 10.1007/s00109-002-0379-6View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Puffenberger EG, Hosoda K, Washington SS, Nakao K, deWit D, Yanagisawa M, et al.: A Missense Mutation of the Endothelin-B Receptor Gene in Multigenic Hirsch-sprungs-Disease. Cell 1994,79(7):1257–1266. 10.1016/0092-8674(94)90016-7View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McCallion AS, Chakravarti A: EDNRB/EDN3 and Hirschsprung disease type II. Pigment Cell Res 2001,14(3):161–169. 10.1034/j.1600-0749.2001.140305.xView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar