Gallbladder metastasis from renal cell carcinoma mimicking acute cholecystitis
© I. Holzapfel Publishers 2009
Received: 13 March 2008
Accepted: 18 July 2008
Published: 18 February 2009
Renal cell carcinoma constitutes about 3% of adult malignancies. It has a high metastatic potential associated with synchronous or metachronous metastatic disease. Further, it is known to metastasize mainly to the lung, bone, brain, liver, or adrenal glands. In very rare cases it can metastasize to the gallbladder mimicking acute cholecystitis on clinical exam. In this case we present a patient who developed a gallbladder metastasis five years after a renal cell carcinoma mimicking acute cholecystitis.
In November, 2007, a 48-year-old woman presented in our clinic with a four-day history of colicky pain in the right upper quadrant radiating to the back. Additionally she felt pain in her right scapular region. She complained of nausea and vomiting. She had a history of nephrectomy and adrenalectomy for right sided renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in 2002. Since then all yearly follow ups consisting of abdominal sonography and CT-scan were without pathological findings.
Physical examination revealed axillary temperature of 37.8 C, regular heart beat (84 beats/min) without heart murmur, and normal breath sounds. Examination of the abdomen revealed tenderness in the right upper quadrant, positive Murphy's sign and unremarkable bowel sounds. Laboratory analysis showed a slight thrombopenia with 139.00/NL and haemoglobin of 10.9 g/dl. All other laboratory values were within normal limits, there was no cholestasis and no laboratory signs of infection.
Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) is a rare tumour accounting for 3% of all adult malignancies. It has a high metastatic potential with 25-57% metastatic disease at time of initial presentation . Metastatic RCC has a poor prognosis with 1-year survival of less than 50%, 5 year suvival of 5-30%, and 10 year survival of 0-5% . RCC is known to metastasize mainly to the lung, bone, brain, liver, or adrenal glands . RCC metastases to the gallbladder are very unusual, only a few case reports are available in the literature of surgically resected metastasis documenting this rare localization. Diagnosis of gall bladder metastasis was more often metachronous than synchronous. In the reviewed cases metachronous tumours were detected from 3 months to 27 years after initial diagnosis [5, 6]. However the vast majority is detected at autopsy . In a study by Bennington et al. the incidence of gallbladder metastasis of RCC was reported to be 0.57% (3 out of 523 autopsies) . In another study Weiss et al. report 0.58% (4 out of 687 autopsies) .
Gallbladder metastasis have been reported from other primary tumour, melanoma being the most frequent followed by lung, oesophagus, pancreas and colon carcinoma . Metastasis from extraperitoneal organs such as the kidney, breast, skin and lung are described to primarily follow a hematogenous route . Willis reported that hematogenous metastasis to the gallbladder initially begin with small flat submucosal nodules which then grow as pedunculated tumors, being rarely greater then several mililimeter in size resembling primary GB carcinoma [12, 13].
As in our patient, metastatic RCC to the gallbladder may produce symptoms mimicking cholecystitis which is an uncommon and unusual clinical presentation of metastatic disease. For primary gallbladder malignancies in general and especially for secondary gallbladder metastasis, conventional diagnostic methods including history, physical examination and sonography are nonspecific. Although Color Doppler sonography and CT findings have been described for metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the gallbladder they are still unspecific as metastasis show a broad variety of presentation . Hypervascularity has been reported to be a sign useful in distinguishing metastatic GB tumor of RCC from primary GB tumor which is described to be not so hypervascular. Nevertheless Doppler sonography was not performed in our patient.
As a conclusion from this case, patients with a history of RCC (even after several years of tumour free disease) and pain in the right upper quadrant deserve a high index of suspicion regarding gall bladder metastasis which should be considered as a rare but possible cause. An intraoperative examination of gallbladder specimens and histopathologic examination should be mandatory. Additionally, a pre-operative CT-scan may be considered which potentially alters further therapy.
The written consent was obtained from the patient. We thank Professor Dr. Stathis Philippou, Chief of the Department of Pathology, Augusta Krankenanstalt, Academic Teaching Hospital of the Ruhr-University Bochum, for providing the histologic image.
- Schrader AJ, Hofmann R: Metastatic renal cell carcinoma: recent advances and current therapeutic options. Anticancer Drugs 2008,19(3):235–245. reviewPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Park JS, Chae YS, Hong SJ, Shin DH, Choi JS, Kim BR: Metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the gallbladder. Yonsei Med J 2003,44(2):355–358.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Motzer RJ, Russo P: Systemic therapy for renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 2000,163(2):408–417. reviewPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Maldazys JD, deKernion JB: Prognostic factors in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 1986,136(2):376–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fullarton GM, Burgoyne M: Gallbladder and pancreatic metastases from bilateral renal carcinoma presenting with hematobilia and anemia. Urology 1991,38(2):184–186.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Furukawa H, Mizuguchi Y, Kanai Y, Mukai K: Metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the gallbladder: color Doppler sonography and CT findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1997,169(5):1466–1467.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hellsten S, Berge T, Wehlin L: Unrecognized renal cell carcinoma. Clinical and diagnostic aspects. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1981,15(3):269–272.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bennington JL, Kradjan RM: Distribution of metastases from renal carcinoma. In Renal carcinoma. Saunders, Philadelphia; 1967:156–170.Google Scholar
- Weiss L, Harlos JP, Torhorst J, Gunthard B, Hartveit F, Svendsen E, Huang WL, Grundmann E, Eder M, Zwicknagl M, et al.: Metastatic patterns of renal carcinoma: an analysis of 687 necropsies. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1988,114(6):605–612.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Coskun F, Cetinkaya M, Cengis O, Adsan O, Kualcoglu S, Eroglu A: Metastatic carcinoma of the gallbladder due to renal cell carcinoma in the ectopic kidney. Acta Chir Belg 1995,95(1):56–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Murguia E, Quiroga D, Canteros G, Sanmartino C, Barreiro M, Herrera J: Gallbladder metastases from ductal papillary carcinoma of the breast. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 2006,13(6):591–593.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Aoki T, Inoue K, Tsuchida A, Aoki T, Kasuya K, Kitamura K, Koyanagi Y, Shimizu T: Gallbladder metastasis of renal cell carcinoma: report of two cases. Surg Today 2002,32(1):89–92.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Willis RA: The spread of tumours in the human body. Butterworth, London 218–219.Google Scholar